After an article is submitted to a journal for consideration, there can be a delay ranging fromseveral months to more than two yearsbefore it is published in a journal, rendering journals aless than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such as astronomyandsome parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely beenreplaced by preprintrepositories such as arXiv.org. However, scholarly journals still play animportant role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, theelectronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication ina peer-reviewed journal.There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination.A numberof journals have, while retaining their peer review process, established electronic versions oreven moved entirely to electronic publication.Electronic publishing is increasingly popular in works of fiction as well as with scientificarticles. Electronic publishers are able to provide quick gratification for late-night readers, booksthat customers might not be able to find in standard book retailers (erotica is especially popularin eBookformat), and books by new authors that would be unlikely to be profitable fortraditional publishers.71charles j. othina, lecturer, media dept, maseno universityMASENO UNIVERSITY ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED
While the term "electronic publishing" is primarily used today to refer to the current offerings ofonline and web-based publishers, the term has a history of being used to describe thedevelopment of new forms of production, distribution, and user interaction in regard tocomputer-based production of text and other interactive media.72charles j. othina, lecturer, media dept, maseno universityMASENO UNIVERSITY ISO 9001:2008 CERTIFIED
Music publisher (popular music)A simple view, in the music industry, is that a music publisher(or publishing company) isresponsible for ensuring the songwritersandcomposersreceive payment when theircompositionsare used commercially. However the role and growth of national and internationalcollection societies has altered the role of music publishers.Through an agreement called a publishing contract, a songwriter or composer "assigns" thecopyrightof their composition to a publishing company. In return, the company licensescompositions, helps monitor where compositions are used, collects royaltiesand distributes themto the composers. They also secure commissions for music and promote existing compositions torecording artists, filmand television.The term originally referred to publishers of sheet music. In the late 19th century sheet musicwas the primary commercial use of musical compositions. Today, the two businesses havediverged, and the large companies known as "music publishers" typically are no longer in thebusiness of producing printed music.