Explain how HIV evades the immune system Explain at least two consequences of

Explain how hiv evades the immune system explain at

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Explain how HIV evades the immune system. Explain at least two consequences of the rapid evolution of HIV. What do cytotoxic T cells do? How do antibodies help to fight infections? HIV uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA from RNA. Is there a eukaryotic enzyme that can make DNA from RNA? (see the Bio overview class slide handout, page 10, for a reminder). III. Study guide for TB A. Terms you should understand: Prokaryote, eukaryote, bacterium, cell wall, macrophage, phagocytosis, phagosome, lysosome, lysosomal fusion, immune evasion, giant cell, granuloma, dormant infection, latent TB, active TB, TB reactivation, BCG vaccine. B. Questions you should be able to answer: What is the organism that causes TB? Is the organism that causes TB a cell? 2
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Is the organism that causes TB a prokaryote or eukaryote, unicellular (single cell) or multicellular? Does M Tb have a nucleus, mitochondria, and a plasma membrane? Does M Tb have a cell wall? What kind of genome does it have (RNA or DNA)? Name a cell type infected by TB. How does M Tb enter cells? How can TB infection be completely eliminated by a human cell after entry into the cell? Why don't all infected cells eliminate TB? What is the function of a granuloma? What is the term for an infection in which the TB organism is dormant? Is latent TB contagious? Is a person with latent TB infected with M Tb? How long could latency last? What is the role of the immune system in maintaining latency? Name four risk factors for TB. How is TB transmitted? Can people with TB develop active disease many years after becoming infected? What are the possible outcomes following infection with TB? Do more people have latent TB or active TB? What are symptoms of TB and are some of them similar to symptoms of other diseases? What is the TB skin test? What does a positive PPD tell you? How reliable is the PPD? Be prepared to calculate sensitivity and specificity for data sets. Give an example for why the TB skin test has poor sensitivity. Give an example for why the TB skin test has poor specificity. What is the BCG vaccine? Is the BCG vaccine used in the US? In what countries might the BCG vaccine be used? What does the IGRA test detect? When is the IGRA test better than a TB skin test? What tests should be given to a person who has a positive TB skin test and possible TB symptoms? Which people infected with M Tb should be put in respiratory isolation? Which people infected with M Tb should not be put in respiratory isolation? What is directly observed therapy and when should it be used? What is contact tracing and when should it be used?
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