Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

Innervate skin or muscle by a single long process its

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unipolar neuron – largely found in sensory/afferent neurons. Innervate skin or muscle, by a single long process it's connected to outputs to other neurons. Usually involved in communicating in a fairly accurate way. Not a lot of integration across diff pathways o bipolar neuron – large input and a large output – communicating info a great distance, but communication is integrated at cell body. Do a little more complex process then unipolar neuron. Often found in efferent motor neurons o multipolar neuron – usually in CNS, what we find is multipolar neurons. Characterized by large dendritic trees. Have lots of input, good at integrating info from a lot of cellular inputs. Processing in a simplistic fashion, at least for changing their electrical chemical properties. They have an output, can be long (a projector neuron) that projects from one part of the brain to another or o a local interneuron → short axon – multipolar interneuron. Interested in multipolar neurons b/c of their specialized properties that allow them to do complex things in the CNS Classification of Neurotransmitters (NT's) o structure of chemical: amino acids (building block of proteins), monoamines, peptides (group of amino acids structural similar to proteins), etc, diff. Types of chemicals used to communicate co-localization o function: inhibitory, excitatory, modulatory (complex ways neurons can be influenced) depends on receptor proteins responding to NT's side note: talk about neurons b/c understand them better, doesn't meant their more important, we have just studied them for a greater extent and have a better concept of how they are working. Cells of the Nervous System II Glial cells
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latin for “glue” make up 90% of your brain we know that they are more than structural support (just there to hold neurons in place)!!! turns out they carry out more complex functions as well o Myelinating glia: enahance electrical signaling (enhance speed of transmission & communication info over great distances) in multiple sclerosis, we loose myelanted glia & ability to control muscle contraction as well as gaining sensory information (come back to this later) oligodendrocytes (CNS; brain & spinal cord) schwann cells (PNS; nerves throughout body) essentially do the same thing --- myelantion (facilitating and enhancing the speed of the electrical signal) o Astrocytes: largest glia, star-shaped regulate nutrients and waste for neurons (critical in interacting w/the blood system) involved in response to injury remove and release ions (charged molecules) & NT's (critical in regulating ions (electrical species in the brain the control electrical properties ) and basil level of NT's) assist in the transfer of chemicals (nutrients and waste products) from the blood to the nervous system; wrap around blood vessels to from blood-brain barrier also take up and release ions, NT's appear to be key players in neurotransmission o Microglia: involved in response to injury or disease, remove debris, form scars
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