31 bowersox and calantone 2005 state that the notion

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Bowersox and Calantone (2005) state that the notion of a combined supply chain isnot a new one, but that it has only recently become feasible as corporations have access toinformation that is timely, accurate and affordable. They also make the point that informationis the only element in the supply chain that has become less expensive over time. An exampleof this trend is the swelling use of e-mail for communication both within companies andbetween trading partners.At a nominal cost email is being utilized to transfer word processor files, designdocumentation and CAD files, spreadsheets and trading documents like orders and invoicesbetween trading partners (Braue, 2009). The breadth of applications and uses that e-mail isbeing put to in the streamlining of supply chain communications is often under-estimated.The use of e-mail is a crucial facilitator of better communications and relationships betweentrading partners in an international context (Carter, 2000).2.3.5 Supply Chain Management (SCM)Supply chain management (SCM) can be referred to as all the events involved in delivering aproduct from raw materials through to the customer, including sourcing parts and rawmaterials, manufacturing and assembly, warehousing and inventory tracking, distributionacross channels, delivery to the customer, order entry and order management, and theinformation systems necessary to monitor these activities (Lummus & Vokurka, 2008). Sixconstructs have been developed from supply chain management practices which are; supplychain integration, chain characteristics, information sharing, supply customer servicemanagement and JIT capability (Tan, 2012).Humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM) is referred to as the process ofeffective and cost-efficient plans, implementations and controls for aid flows (i.e., materials,goods, services, financial resources, information, etc.) from the point of origin to the point ofconsumption with the intention of meeting the aid recipients’ requirements (Day et al., 2012).32
As a subset of supply chain management, it covers almost all of the functional processes thata commercial supply chain management (CSCM) does, including processes such as sourcing,procurement, inventory management, logistics and distribution, information management,and so forth (Day et al., 2012). However, unlike the “financial” objectives of CSCM, theprimary goal for HSCM is to minimize human suffering -- more specifically to preventfurther loss of life and harm to humans, as well as provide immediate treatment to those withinjuries and illness (Beamon & Balcik, 2008).On the other hand, as have been discussed by some researchers, humanitarian supplychains operate under highly uncertain conditions relative to commercial supply chains(Wassenhove, 2011). First of all, the unpredictability of disaster occurrence and themagnitude of damage make forecasting extremely difficult. Second, the typical collapse ofinfrastructure in the affected area severely inhibits aid to the disaster region. Third, the

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