Expresses ideas reference refers to real or imagined

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expresses ideas Referencerefers to real or imagined world of objects and events. Also displacement can refer to events past, present or future Interpersonalnot just for thought, but also to communicate one’s ideas to someone elseStructureorganized according to the rules of grammar. Creativitypeople can generate and understand novel utterances, that have never been heard or spoken by them (or anyone else) ever before called productivity. English has 10^30 meaningful 20-word sentences!
Hierarchical structure organization of language:Phonemessmallest unit of speech ONLY 40 in English Which of the following do we have the LEAST of in English? PhonemesMorphemessmallest unit of speech with meaning 50,000 in English (roots, stems, prefixes, suffixes) oOpen-class nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs (open because new members added by inventing new words) oClosed-class articles, connectives, prepositions, prefixes, suffixes. Words one or more morphemes a root or stem, plus (perhaps) a prefix or suffix 200,000 in English. Phrases and Sentences strings of one or more words that express a meaningful proposition. Infinite. MOST in English. How phrase structure combines words into sentences:
Semantics oReference types Denotative Connotative oSemantic memory networks Associative Propositional ocategorization Pragmatics oLinguistic surrounding sentencesoNonlinguistic Environmental context Prosody “What am I doing here?”Gesture sign language in the deafFacial expressions, other “body language”conversational rules And you should know something about the debate concerning linguistic relativity, also known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: language determines thought, or the language we use constrains the kinds of thoughts we can have.
Chapter 8: Cognition and Language Cognition / congnitivethinking and using knowledge

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