MUSC 115 Study Guide for Midterm Exam.docx

Frottola imitation of nature can be seen in the dale

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Frottola - imitation of nature can be seen in the “dale dale dale” of the cricket Spain = Villancico - short, strophic and usually homophonic secular pieces that were usually on rustic or popular subjects, that were composed for the aristocracy Utilized pastoral themes borrowed from ancient Greek and Roman literature (HUMANIST) , and this is expressed through a bagpipe drone or musically expressed in shepherd-like tones Q: How are a baroque opera and a baroque concerto similar? Q: How do Bach and Handel use borrowed material in their sacred music? Why? (Palisca, Claude, V. Music and Ideas in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2006.) (Stauffer, George B. The World of Baroque Music. New Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006. Chapter 10: Bach and the Bounds of Originality. pp. 213-234.) (Schulenberg, Music of the Baroque) Compositional process in the time of Bach was very different - often completed works in a single week or day, and pieces were performed for a specific purpose within a few days of completion had to “invent” or discover ideas quickly, no luxury of time Thus, needed a proactive approach to composition that would involve recycling a great deal of earlier material revised to fit new needs; adjusting movements to
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become cantatas, etc. At least 20% of Bach’s oeuvre stems from older pieces Precedence for recycling old music dates all the way from the troping tradition of Leonin, Perotin and Notre Dame Renaissance continued this tradition, by writing masses based on own music or that of peers - in fact, this turned into a competition of who could be more “artful” in their imitation In Baroque era, borrowing was a commonplace and practical means for composers to meet growing demands for new music, and music was often written for singular events Increased borrowing in Baroque era was facilitated by new styles of composition that made musical recycling very feasible Parody procedure - retexting a vocal composition to produce a new work, especially with madrigal poetry. Different diction, rhyme, and structure would allow composers to produce a new work for a new occasion Multi-movement formats and sectional forms - self-sufficient movements could be removed and used elsewhere, or using discrete ritornello and episodic material Interchangeability of idioms - development of compositional idioms for vocal, instrumental, or keyboard works, so you could write a keyboard work in the manner of a vocal work, or vice versa Furthermore, revisions were ongoing - meaning that a “final” form wasn’t necessary and therefore easier to borrow or parody Handel = Hallelujah chorus Longer Essay Questions Q: Discuss how composers from the periods discussed have used music to convey meaning. Give examples.
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