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12.Describe events during cartilage model formation. Includeeach of the following:a. nutrient arterypenetration – Nutrient artery penetrationoccurs during the development of the ossificationcenter. When an arterial vessel penetrates the bonesfrom the perichondrium it increases the availability ofnutrients to the surrounding cells.b. Osteogenic cells and osteoblasts – The nutrient arterypenetration stimulates nearby osteogenic cells and turns into osteoblasts. c. Contrast the perichondriumand the periosteum. – The perichondrium is the connective tissue on the surface of cartilage. The periosteum is the connective tissue on the surface of the bone.
13. Describe (step 2) growth of the cartilage model. Include eachof the following: Embryonic mesenchyme condensesand turns into chondroblasts. The chondroblastsbegin secreting cartilage matrix and form the cartilagemodel. As more of the cartilage model is deposited,the cartilage grows more within the fetus.14. Describe (step 3) bone collar and periosteum formation. Anutrient artery penetrated the perichondriumincreasing nutrient availability to the cells. Osteogenic cells develop into osteoblasts, which then deposit bone matrix under perichondrium to form a thin shell of compact bone. This is known as the bone collar. Once the perichondrium begins to form bone, it is known as the periosteum. 15. Describe (step 4) primary ossification center formation.a. Nutrient deprival – Nutrient deprival is when the bonecollar prevents diffusion of nutrients to the interiorcartilage area.b. Osteocyte carrying capillaries – These capillaries carryosteoblasts and as the cartilage in the interior areadisintegrate due to a lack of nutrients the capillariespenetrate into the interior and bring the osteoblasts thatwill begin to lay down the matrix.