SAR-39684-the-neurocircuitry-of-illicit-psychostimulant-addiction--an-_020713.pdf

101 amph is primarily used via oral or intravenous

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101 AMPH is primarily used via oral or intravenous routes and also has a longer half-life of 10–14 hours. 99,102 Various AMPH salt mixtures, such as D -AMPH, L -AMPH, are also used in medications to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and are often described and alternatively categorized as prescription drugs. It is commonly thought that METH is more addictive than AMPH, which is supported by the finding that METH may have a stronger effect on DAT-mediated cell physiology and DA clearance in the NAc, though METH and AMPH do not differ in other pharmacokinetic properties or in the magnitude of DA release in the DS. 103,104 submit your manuscript | Dove press Dove press 33 Neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation downloaded from by 71.51.178.127 on 08-Aug-2018 For personal use only. 1 / 1
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Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2013:4 Chronic effects of psychostimulants As previously described, drug addiction is considered a transitional process from casual drug use to habitual and uncontrolled drug use to dependence. Thus, different neurobiological adaptations likely underlie different stages of addiction. Several types of long-term changes can occur following prolonged drug use, including impairments in cognition and behavior, dysregulated functional connectivity within the brain, altered monoamine (primarily DA) receptor and transporter expression, and neurotransmitter synthesis and release. The focus of this section will be to provide a general picture of the long-term effects of chronic illicit psychostimulant use in humans. The majority of clinical research has focused on cocaine and METH users, with the frequent assumption that chronic AMPH use leads to similar outcomes as METH. Due to the variability in duration of drug abstinence in human subjects, the present review focuses on studies that utilized current psychostimulant users, or users in early stages of abstinence. For more detailed information on psychostimulant relapse, the reader is referred to several recently published reviews. 105–107 In addition, a couple of caveats relevant to research on the chronic effects of psychostimulants in humans deserve to be mentioned. First, it is important to note that not every individual that experiences the acute effects of psychostimulants will become a chronic user. Individual predisposing factors, such as genetic vulnerabilities, trait impulsivity, socioeconomic status, early life experiences, and stress exposure, all significantly impact the addiction process. Secondly, only longitudinal studies in humans can truly determine whether the neuropsychological, psychiatric, or neuroanatomical differences in chronic psychostimulant users are a result of drug use or predisposing factors.
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