black dying and death constitutes ontological value and value-added labor. ¶ When bodies are produced with no rights, status, and, above all, as nonhuman ¶ with no corporeal life the ongoing terror and murder and disappearance ¶ of them are a structural impossihility. In effect, the reconstruction ¶ of chattel slavery's affective and material economies, as embodied ¶ through the black economies circuit, is one that secures an endless supply of ¶ raw flesh whose civically dead status and ontological non-existence render ¶ ontologically impossible and fraudulent its enunciation of state and capital ¶ terror. 10 ¶ New Orleans embodied spatialized gratuitous violences and its contingent ¶ grammars . Under the French, the planters established themselves on the ¶ "high ground near the banks of the Mississippi and used African slaves to ¶ raise sugarcane and indigo in the rich soils deposited over several millennia of ¶ delta building. The natural levees up and down river from New Orleans were ¶ developed in the same manner. Thus, New Orleans began and thrived as a ¶ port city surrounded by vast plantation" (BondGraham 2007: 1 0; cite Ingersoll ¶ 1 999). In the 1950s, the city was segregated into white and black sections ¶ "with a set of railroad tracks, a military reserve and an ample sized patch of ¶ green space" (ibid. : 9). However, social and economic restructurings in ¶ development projects such as suburbanization created specific spaces destined ¶ to hold the possibility of secure jobs, large affordable homes and allowed for ¶ an in-built distance from the ever darkening "chocolate city" (ibid. : 9); ¶ Much of today's economic activity takes place on plantation properties (i.e., ¶ Hope Plantation, Angelina Plantation, etc.). The slave-based economy of ¶ Louisiana flourished through the Spanish rule, the second domination of the ¶ French and also through the American domination until the Civil War. In the ¶ meantime, New Orleans grew to become one of the largest southern cities as ¶ emancipated slaves moved to New Orleans. The different parts of the city that ¶ remained small and rural exploded to become sites of large factories, sugar ¶ and oil refineries, and the "perfect" economic extractive sites for the working ¶ class. Yet, even when many blacks moved into the city, the well-established ¶ patterns of geographical segregation , albeit with non-deterministic spatial forms, informed the practices of the state and its design of policies especially ¶ in the areas of real estate and banking industries. Legal-spatial regimes ¶
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- Fall '09
- Global Warming, Hurricane Sandy