R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

To plan a step into a particular market but their

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to plan a step into a particular market, but their decisiOÍl,~J to enter that market in the first place may have been reached by noth<~t ing more than their arbitrary and determined desire to enter that mai-',~ ket. In such a situation, they may fail again and again in their spedfit;J~ risk~avoidant, information-based plans" but they will go back again and::~ again to that market until they succeed there, simply because the larger;:~ perhaps riskier, decision to be there in the first place had already bee"Wl made, Arabs and certain Africans, such as the Nigerians, as well as the;~ Chinese can often exhibit what. for Westerners, seems a "passive 1 ;\1 aggressive" attitude toward risk. ':1:1';;1; Mexico's Iow risk-taking propensity is partIy based on a fatalistic attii;:, tude toward the world. There, "a realíst is a pessimist." Since bad thing&S~~ will always happen, one should be extremely careful in ~ne's actions-in~ order to avoid running an even greater risk ofbringing on negative sit~~ u~tions, In Japan, also low in risk ta~ng, one avoids risk and unc~f,~'.'I~' tamty because the unexpected can easdy destroy the balanced web'o{1:¡ harmony that one is so careful to weave. Our own American "cow:;:':: puncher" approach, the "shoot-from-the-hip" attitude of a young ari~~~ ~nergetic cultu~e unenc,umbere? by the experiences of an older worl~;i~ IS slowly changmg. But m one vlew ofmany ofthe cultures we do busl~:~ ness with, our continuing enthusiasm and naiveté is sometimes too dis~~~ turbing to lead to any good.:::~ ;-':', ',j",{i !.: ;':;~O' ~. ;f~l Group Versus Individual Orientation ; .·:··~;!1 Action and work can be conducted for and by individuals or for and bt4! groups, as the Hofstede dimension of individualism versus collectivisrqi~; demonstrates. In Japan. "the nail that sticks up gets hammered dowri'il~ that is, the individual who brings attention to himself 01' herself will b,t b sharply put back in his pr her place, In contrast, as we have seen"di~ cultural values we are given at an early age in the United States encó . age individualism, Children are urged to "do things for themselvei Young people are expected to leave the nest in their late teens and ea twenties. Independence is a virtue practiced and applauded at the earlí possible momento In other cultures, one may not leave the nest just for ti, sake oFIeaving; indeed, one may never leave the web offamily at all. '::qp¡ Group or individual orientation, therefore, affects the negotiatióti~ Intemational Negotíating StyIes 289 process in a number ofwáys. In group-oriented societies, the other side will probably be a team, as opposed to an individual or a few individu- als. Decisions will probably oot be made at the table, but rather will be "dlscussed among the group members after the meeting is overo Group orientation means that individual initiative, or individual attempts to ,iake extra responsibility, or to do a super job for the sake ofgetting the (redit, will not occur. Merit is bestowed on the'entire group, whatever 'the individual efforts responsible for success. Decisions will probably take longer, and deals will have to be designed so that the group
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