Positive and Negative Affectivity Similar to extraversion Summary Define personality 3 approaches in understanding behavior Personality – situation debate Strong vs. weak situations Big-Five Personality (IMPORTANT) How does each dimension predict job outcomes? Other personality attributes (less important) January 23 rd 2012
Learning What is learning? We change our behavior because we can change our behavior based on the expectation of the environment. Operant learning theory (skinner) What do people learn? – BF skinner After repeated rewards, pigeon learns certain actions. Carrot or Stick? Experiment: 1 st Give reward when volunteer goes toward the destination 2 nd . Gives punishment when they move away from the destination Volunteer can relate the reaction with behavior and learn the association. B.F.skinner He uses pigeons and train them to do certain actions He wants to apply it to human beings. We do things that will rewards us with outcomes. Law of effect – people repeat behaviors that bring them satisfaction and pleasure, and stop those that bring them dissatisfaction and pain Increasing the Probability of Behavior – Reinforcement In safety required organizations, make them wear uniforms and protections Positive reinforcement: Just like that game, once a group introduced it, all groups want to follow because It has positive effects! Addition of a pleasant stimulus Negative reinforcement Remove an unpleasant stimulus in order to increase some behavior “electric shock” = punishment In organizations, as manager, employees in my department they don’t speak up when they see potential problems. I want to increase their voice and behavior. I figure out that they are agfraid of the outcomes; they might be excluded by other members by speaking out the truth. I want to remove the block; I tell them if they
speak up, they will not be punished and not excluded. Effective Reinforcement in Organization Pay attention to the diverse preference of different employees Some may prefer vocation Some may prefer money Contingent on specific desired behavior Make it to your employee that THIS is the behavior that I want! If you don’t specify the specific desired behavior then it may cause problems. Diverse individual preferences Make it personally meaningful Source of reinforcement Performance feedback Tell employees what they did, how good they were. Social recognition My fellow employees recognize my achievement Reducing the Probability of Behavior Extinction We want to remove the possible outcomes of unwanted behaviors Ex. Teenager smoking We want to reduce the behavior We realize one big reason to smoke is to become popular among them peers, they want to be recognized.
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