H δ s and t for a reaction be able to calculate δ g

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H, Δ S and T for a reaction, be able to calculate Δ G and determine if the reaction is spontaneous under those conditions.
Expt. 10 – Natural Waters Define water hardness and list two problems caused by hard water. Be able to explain the chemistry behind the EDTA titrations. Why do we need the buffer? Why do we spike the samples with MgEDTA? Write the reactions to help explain. Given the results of an EDTA titration, be able to calculate water hardness in units of ppm CaCO 3 Explain the chemistry behind softening hard water using an ion exchange resin. Provide a short paragraph that explains how Atomic Absorption (AA) spectroscopy works. o Relate the Beer-Lambert Law to AA analysis Why did we need standard data (provided by the stockroom technicians) as part of our AA analysis?
Know how to convert ppm Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ as determined by AA analysis to ppm CaCO 3 . Explain why the overall water hardness determined by AA is typically less than hardness determined by an EDTA titration. Expt 14 – Acid Base Equilibria Fig 14.3 shows titration curves of a strong, monoprotic acid titrated with 0.10 M NaOH (aq) solution. Calculate the concentration (M) of the acid given: o Curve A = 25.00 mL unknown acid o Curve B = 5.00 mL unknown acid o Curve C = 10 mL unknown acid o Curve D = 25 mL unknown acid

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