Naturalistic Fallacy Confusing what ought to be with what actually is Selection

Naturalistic fallacy confusing what ought to be with

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Naturalistic Fallacy Confusing what ought to be with what actually is - Selection for risk taking: Natural selection can also select for bad and immoral things * Ex. male moose dominating other males in fights over females Adaptive? Yes Function: to main exclusive access to females Natural selection favors the tendency to physically exclude other males from mating Same principle in humans and non humans (both mammals) 1) Acquisition of Resources Peacefully: there is moderate payoff and low risk associated Aggressively: there is potential larger payoff but also larger risk of death/injury/jail time This can be a lucrative strategy is goes as plan (ex. Invading population and having no retaliation or someone standing up to the aggressive act 2) Violence as a deterrent Risk Taking Risk sensitivity theory If one is likely to survive and reproduce without taking risk than it will select against risk taking If one is unlikely to survive and reproduce without taking risks than it will select for risk taking *this occurs when you are not on track to do well and you are desperate Risk taking evolution Polygynous societies (high variance for reproductive success) When one man marries multiple wives - other males aren’t getting any so they are now on track to not be s uccessful and thus TAKE MORE RISKS Males more violent than women: High number of same sex homicides - high for young adults (spike for this is universal) What are they fighting over 1) Social competitions - Public insults, rivalry over a woman 2) Material competitions - Robberies, invasion Who has less to lose by taking risks? Unemployment and early adulthood Unmarried men who aren’t on track to reproduce Testosterone (proximate mechanism of risk taking) T is high among desperate, single men Costs vs. benefits of welfare
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Final Exam Review: Psyc 3100 Evolution Selection and learning favors aggressive tendencies when benefits outweigh the costs If costs are high then fear kicks in, when low it gets ramped up Factors that reduce costs: Poor alternative prospects (nothing to lose) High individual ability Power differential from weaponry or numbers - human and chimp group size Climate change and starvation Factors that increase benefits Value and alienability of resources Mating system (polygyny has potential for gain and then some men have nothing to lose) Status differences (potential for gain) When there is a balance - less conflict and violence By understanding functional causes of aggression - we can reduce its prevalence Figure out what we are doing right to draw violence rates further Sperm Competition Increasing the likelihood that one’s sperm will fertilize the egg instead of another males sperm Some insects sperm is shaped like scoops to scoop out other insects sperm Investment in sperm: More investment means higher chance of fertilization
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