557 the collapse of the hephthalite empire 565 the

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557 The collapse of the Hephthalite Empire. 565 The death of Justinian. 570 The birth of Muhammad. 579 The death of Khusrow I. 590 The coup and usurpation of Bahram Chobin. 591 The defeat of Bahram Chobin and accession of Khusrow II. 602 The murder of Maurice and usurpation of Phocas. 610 The overthrow of Phocas by Heraclius 610 Muhammad receives his first divine revelation. 614 The Persians burn Ephesus and storm Jerusalem. 619 The Persians capture Alexandria. 622 The emigration, or hijra , of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. 626 The Persians and Avars lay siege to Constantinople. 627 Heraclius invades Mesopotamia.
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628 The death of Khusrow II; Heraclius and Shahrbaraz sign peace treaty. 630 Heraclius returns the True Cross to Jerusalem. 632 The death of Muhammad. 634 The Arabs invade Palestine; the Battle of Gaza. 636 The Romans are defeated at the Yarmuk, and withdraw from Syria. 637 The Battle of Qadisiyya. 638 The Arabs capture Jerusalem. 639 The Arabs invade Egypt. 642 Alexandria falls to the Arabs. 644 The assassination of Umar. 650 The Arabs cross the River Oxus for the first time. 651 The murder of Yazdegird III. 656 The assassination of Uthman. 657 Ali and Mu’awiya fight an inconclusive battle on the banks of the Euphrates. 658
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Ali defeats the Kharijites. 661 The assassination of Ali; Mu’awiya is hailed as “Commander of the Faithful” in Jerusalem. 674 The first Arab siege of Constantinople. 680 Yazid succeeds Mu’awiya; the Battle of Karbala; the rebellion of Ibn al-Zubayr. 683 The Umayyad sack of Medina; the burning of the Ka’ba
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