12 objectives the main aim of this lesson is to study

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expect that the same things will happen. 1.2 OBJECTIVES The main aim of this Lesson is to study the Basics of statistics. After going through this Lesson you should be able to: Describe the origin of Statistics Explain about the importance of Statistics 1.3 CONTENTS 1.3.1. Meaning 1.3.2. Definition 1.3.3. Uses of Statistics 1.3.1. MEANING “Statistics”, that a word is often used, has been derived from the Latin word ‘Status’ that means a group of number s or figures; those represent some information of our human interest. We find statistics in everyday life, such as in books or other information papers or TV or newspapers. Although, in the beginning it was used by Kings only for collecting information about states and other information which was needed about their people, their number, revenue of the state etc. This was known as the science of the state because it was used only by the Kings. So it got its development as ‘Kings’ subject or ‘Science of Kings’ or we may call it as “Political arithmetic’s”. It was for the first time, perhaps in Egypt to conduct census of population in 3050 B.C. because the king needed money to erect pyramids. But in India, it is thought, that, it started dating back to Chandra Gupta Maurya’s kingdom under Chankya to collect the data of births and deaths. TM has also been stated in Chankya’s Arthshastra. But now -a-days due to its pervading nature, its scope has increased and widened. It is now used in almost in all the fields of human knowledge and skills like Business, Commerce, Economics, Social Sciences, Politics, Planning, Medicine and other sciences, Physical as well as Natural.
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2 1.3.2. DEFINITION The term ‘Statistics’ has been defined in two senses, i.e. in Singular and in Plural sense. A. In the Plural Sense “Statistics are numerical statements of facts in any department of enquiry placed in relation to each other.” – A.L. Bowley. “The classified facts respecting the condition of the people in a state — especially those facts which can be stated in numbers or in tables of numbers or in any tabular or classified arrangement.” — Webster “By statistics we mean aggregates of facts affected to a marked extent by multiplicity of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated or estimated according to reasonable standard of accuracy, collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose, and placed in relation to each other.”— Horace Sacrist. B. In the Singular Sense “Statistics refers to the body of technique or methodology, which h as been developed for the collection, presentation and analysis of quantitative data and for the use of such data in decision making.” — Ncttor and Washerman. “Statistics may rightly be called the science of averages.” — Bowleg. “Statistics may be defined as the collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data.” — Croxton and Cowden.
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