CLEP Principles of Management 1

Joseph juran 3 principles should guide quality top

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Joseph Juran – 3 principles should guide quality: top leaders take charge, extensive training, change should be revolutionary Six Sigma – designed to improve manufacturing process and eliminate defects, based on six standard deviations William Ouchi – coined the phrase “clan control” external discipline generally unnecessary as the disapproval from the group is enough to change behavior Budget centers – contains expected numbers, revenue, costs and taxes for a specified time Expense centers – accountable to stay under expense budget Revenue centers – generate revenue
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Profit center – subtract expenses from revenue Investment center – adds capital budget, aims at generating enough revenue to cover large capital expenses Fiedler Contingency Theory of leadership – least preferred coworker (LPC) Task oriented situations – employees preferred task –motivated managers Feedback Task – employee’s preferred relationally-minded managers High task structure, employee task are well defined and clear Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard – developed the Life Cycle Model – employees go thru a cycle (three areas) of development that leads to readiness: education/experience, confidence, and willingness to assume responsibility Robert House developed the Path Goal Theory – manager’s job is to help employee perform and ensure that their performance is rewarded. – Closely linked to Expectancy Theory of Motivation – motivation on outcomes or rewards Directive Leadership style – tells employee what to do and the process to do it Supportive Leadership style – relates to employee, ask questions and gives encouragement Participative leadership style – manager involves employees in decision making process, values their input Principle of Universality of managerial – states that the managerial functions are the same no matter what lever manager you are. Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling will happen at every level Staffing – evaluating performance of employees, promoting, providing development opportunities Acceptance Theory of Authority – managers do not possess authority unless the employees accept it Delegation of Authority – granting enough power to subordinates in order to accomplish prescribed tasks Scope of Authority – more limited in lower levels (amount of restriction placed on authority) Unity of Command Principle – delegation should only come from one supervisor to an employee General Supervision – supervisor sets goals and discusses with the employee objectives to be done Autocratic Supervision – supervision under pressure, control and disciplinary threats
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Formal Communication – follow the chain of command, downward, upward or horizontally Informal Communication – grapevine communication, gossip mill, natural channels that grow out of employee relationships Downward Formal Communication - communication comes from top management down to subordinates
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