Could not always ensure nonviolence thousands were

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could not always ensure nonviolence. Thousands were jailed, there was violence on both sides, and in 1922 Gandhi was sentenced to prison for six years. He was released for medical reasons after two years but did not resume political agitation until 1930, distressed that his nonviolent campaign had gone astray. Meanwhile, the government, affected by Gandhi’s achievements, began to implement many of the reforms previously demanded by Congress, increasing the number of Indian officers in the civil service and the army and moving toward abolishing the tax on cotton. Nehru became mayor of his home city of Allahabad. At the same time, rioting between Muslims and Hindus broke out in many areas, a symptom not only of the general atmosphere of turmoil but also of the efforts of special groups to ensure a better place for themselves in the independent India that was clearly coming. When Gandhi’s program was overwhelmingly endorsed by Congress in 1920, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who had expected to head the party and was openly scornful of Gandhi and his satyagraha, resigned in disgust. Hindus and Muslims had worked together for many years in the Congress party. Now, especially under Jinnah, Muslims were being told they had to safeguard their interest against the Hindu majority and that their own party, the Muslim League, was their only sure protector. Jinnah pressed for separate votes for Muslim candidates for the new offices being opened to Indians and Indian voters. Meanwhile, Nehru, who like Jinnah had been educated in England and was highly Westernized, increased his control of the Congress party but maintained his loyalty to Gandhi as India’s spiritual and symbolic leader. Nehru insisted that Congress was the party of all Indians, including Muslims, and that the independence movement would be weakened by factionalism. He was proved tragically right. The world depression beginning in 1929, which bore heavily on India, greatly increased economic distress. When Gandhi resumed political action in 1930, he chose as his target the tax imposed by the government on salt, and the official ban on private or small-scale salt making from the sea, arguing that the tax especially hurt the poor. He led a protest march on foot across India to a beach on the coast, where he purposely courted arrest by picking up a lump of natural salt and urging Indians to do likewise, as many thousands did. Gandhi, Nehru, and many others were jailed, and there was a new wave of strikes. Gandhi had again touched the conscience of the nation. After eight months in prison, he was released to meet with the viceroy in the colonial capital at New Delhi. An agreement was reached to discontinue civil disobedience. In return, the
government approved of the movement to promote the use of Indian-made goods and invited Gandhi to a London conference on India later in 1931, together with Jinnah as a representative of the Muslims.

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