Environment The context in which aircraft and aviation system resources

Environment the context in which aircraft and

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Environment-The context in which aircraft and aviation system resources (software, hardware, liveware) operate, made up of physical, organizational, economic, regulatory, political and social variables that may impact on the worker/operator.-Internal air transport environment relates to immediate work area and includes physical factors such as cabin/cockpit temperature, air pressure, humidity, noise, vibration and ambient light levels.-External air transport environment includes the physical environment outside the immediate work area such as weather (visibility/turbulence), terrain, congested airspace and physical facilities and infrastructure including airports as well as broad organizational, economic, regulatory, political and social factors Liveware-Human element or people in the aviation system. For example, flight crew personnel who operate aircraft, cabin crew, ground crew, management and administration personnel.-The liveware component considers human performance, capabilities and limitations. 5M ModelThe 5M Model comprises of Man, Machine, Medium, Mission and Management. These are the five core areas that failing factors of accident may appear in. This model is one of the most commonly used method in aviation industry to examine aviation accidents. It provides asystematic way of analyzing and focusing on areas that errors most occur within the structure of the organization.
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ManThis is the human element of a system. If a system requires humans for operation, maintenance, or installation, this element must be considered in the system description.MachineThis is the hardware and software (including firmware) element of a system.MediumThe medium(environment) in which the aircraft operation takes place, equipment used, and personnel work directly affects safety. The medium consists of the natural environment and the artificial environment.MissionThe mission is the purpose or central function of the system. This is the reason that all the other elements are brought together.ManagementManagement includes the procedures, policy, and regulations involved in operating, maintaining, installing, and decommissioning a system.List and explain some of the needed elements for creating a proactive “safety culture” with regards to developing various safety reporting systems and reports. Differentiate some of the safety reports in terms of categories.A successful safety culture needs clearly defined duties and well-understood procedures together with clear reporting lines. The characteristics of a good company safety culture include:1. Managers who know what is going on.2. An empowered work force comprising individuals who are willing to report their own errors and near misses and do not fear sanctions.
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3. A “just” culture with a clear line between the acceptable and the unacceptable.4. Wary operators who are ready to deal with the unexpected.5. Flexibility to operate according to actual needs.
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