Of business strategies the perspectives of designers

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of business strategies, the perspectives of designers should also be part of the operational strategy. In the understanding of Tim Brown and his colleagues from IDEO, design thinking is not only a collection of tools and methods from designrelated disciplines nor is it a pure description of a design process (for example, from inspiration to ideation to implementation and back and forth). Design thinking Mutual Inspiration and Learning 151 might be also part of a personality s profile. According to Brown (2008) some of the characteristics of design thinkers are: empathy; �� integrative thinking; �� optimism; �� experimentalism; �� collaboration. �� Design Processes Standards So when design addresses the shaping of processes, the significance of the design process itself increases. It is not only the result of the design process (for example, the formal design of products) that must be assessed. It should also be asked how effective the cooperation between the players in the design process is, how suitable the capabilities of these players are for the process, where it is possible to rationalize the design process and where resources are purposefully being saved in individual cases in order to optimize the process as a whole. Multi-disciplinary Design Teams Successful product (or service) development is never done by one discipline alone. A product like Apple s iPhone is based on the innovative ideas from engineers concerning a new touch-screen technology. Porsche cars are not only known for their extraordinary technology but also (and especially) for their outstanding design. Nevertheless there is a tendency in companies to have a kind of a hierarchy between different departments that are involved in the product-development process. Sometimes product development is dominated by engineering departments, sometimes the marketing department is most influential and in some cases it is also the design department that is the driver for the design process. It was shown by Lockwood (2004) that those companies having established a collaborative team approach in product development are successful when it comes to employee creativity (StorageTek was used as an example for this relation). It might be an interesting and challenging role for creative people to become the coordinators or facilitators for such multidisciplinary design teams. Creative people are used to referring to
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different sources of knowledge within their problem-solving process and they mostly have a holistic approach to problem solving. Recently many creative people have been acting within web-based social networks, which is a good way of learning how to get on with different perspectives and contributions. Nevertheless it will be important for designers and architects to learn, in their courses at colleges, art schools or universities, that it is not only their individual genius that is important for successful product development in practice. They 152 New Educationa l Pers pectives for Designers and Managers
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