of business strategies, the perspectives of designers should also be part of theoperational strategy. In the understanding of Tim Brown and his colleagues fromIDEO, design thinking is not only a collection of tools and methods from designrelateddisciplines nor is it a pure description of a design process (for example, frominspiration to ideation to implementation and back and forth). Design thinkingMutual Inspiration and Learning 151might be also part of a personalitys profile. According to Brown (2008) some of�thecharacteristics of design thinkers are:empathy;��integrative thinking;��optimism;��experimentalism;��collaboration.��Design Processes StandardsSo when design addresses the shaping of processes, the significance of the design processitself increases. It is not only the result of the design process (for example, the formaldesign of products) that must be assessed. It should also be asked how effectivethecooperation between the players in the design process is, how suitable the capabilitiesof these players are for the process, where it is possible to rationalize the design processand where resources are purposefully being saved in individual cases in order tooptimizethe process as a whole.Multi-disciplinary Design TeamsSuccessful product (or service) development is never done by one discipline alone.A product like Apples iPhone is based on the innovative ideas from engineers �concerninga new touch-screen technology. Porsche cars are not only known for theirextraordinary technology but also (and especially) for their outstanding design.Neverthelessthere is a tendency in companies to have a kind of a hierarchy between differentdepartmentsthat are involved in the product-development process. Sometimes productdevelopment is dominated by engineering departments, sometimes the marketingdepartment is most influential and in some cases it is also the design department thatis the driver for the design process.It was shown by Lockwood (2004) that those companies having established a collaborativeteam approach in product development are successful when it comes to employeecreativity (StorageTek was used as an example for this relation). It might be aninterestingand challenging role for creative people to become the coordinators or facilitators forsuch multidisciplinary design teams. Creative people are used to referring to
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differentsources of knowledge within their problem-solving process and they mostly have aholisticapproach to problem solving. Recently many creative people have been acting withinweb-based social networks, which is a good way of learning how to get on with differentperspectives and contributions. Nevertheless it will be important for designers and architectsto learn, in their courses at colleges, art schools or universities, that it is not only theirindividual genius that is important for successful product development in practice. They152 New Educationa l Pers pectives for Designers and Managers
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