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Turner's syndrome (XO): Females with Turner syndrome are short in stature and have a webbed neck . They might be infertile and have difficulty in mathematics, but their verbal ability is often quite good. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY): 10.Know percent of genetic relatedness among parent/child, sibs, grandparents, etc. (lecture). 50% -parents25%- grandparents 11.Know Gotlieb’s Epigenetic Theory (lecture, also p. 56). development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment
Genes do not dictate development; rather, they interact with each other, leading to epigenetic effects where cell expression is turned on or off according to the environments’ interaction with the given genes. 12.Define epigenetics.13.Know the two mechanisms discussed in class: histone acetylation and DNA methylation (lecture & p. 86).Histone acetylation adds an acetyl tail to a clump of proteins (genes) that make it unwind and easier to read – turning it ON. Acetylation of histone proteins reduces the affinity between histones and DNA. RNA polymerase and transcription factors then have easier to access the DNA. Therefore, in most cases, histone acetylation enhances transcriptionhistone deacetylation represses transcription.18.DNA methylation does the opposite, by adding a methyl group to the cytosine base, itrepresses transcription and turns it OFF. DNA methylation is the addition of a methyl group (CH3) directly to the DNA's cytosine base. It may affect gene transcription through several different mechanisms (usually repression of transcription). The methylation pattern is heritable after cell division. What is behavioral genetics (p. 54)? Behavioral genetics is the field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and developmentDefine and distinguish the different genotype/environment correlations: passive, evocative, & active and show how the relative importance of the three types of interactions may change with age (p. 54-57). Passive genotype-environment correlations: occur because biological parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child.Evocative genotype-environment correlations: occur because a child's genetically influenced characteristics elicit certain types of environmentsActive (niche picking genotype-environment correlations: Prenatal diagnostic tests: ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), maternal blood sampling & PGD and sex determination (p. 62-63)? Ultrasound: the use of sound waves to scan the womb and create a visual image of the fetus on a monitor screen Amniocentesis: Amniotic fluid is collected with a needle and analyzed for fetalcells; risk of miscarriage is 1:3,600 (not safe until week 15)Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): cells from the chorion are collectes, usually