Hematology 11-2 notes

All previous ones discussed today were all inherited

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All previous ones discussed today were all inherited disorders AIDS ------ acquired Real definition = infected w/ HIV virus but have to have some sort of other major disease/abnormality In HIV, virus infects T Helper Cells which is a CD4 + cell Viruses have to infect cells to replicate CD4 allows entrance of HIV virus w/in the cell If lymphocyte <500 = bad----AIDs; look for CD4 + cells – can determine w/ flow cytometer Generally you normally have 2 helper cells to 1 suppressor cell ---- so b/c no T helpers – have a suppressed immune system --- can get cancers/viruses Leukocyte Neoplasms Preleukemia/ leukemic states
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11/2 WBC Disorders Cont.’d True malignancies --- cells that are continuously growing; defy everything about normal cell growth Malignancies – Chronic/Acute Chronic leukemias – have mature cells, have a long onset; if don’t get trx right away you can still liver for a longer period of time Acute leukemias – see blasts in peripheral smears (see the most immature cells); very rapid onset; if no trx right away – rapid death Symptoms – fatigue, peticuli –pinpointed hemorrhages, bone pain, weight loss How do we get leukemias (leukocyte neoplasms)?; neoplasms = new growth Translocations – change of chromosome from one to an entirely diff 1 = molecular diagnosis of leukemias = translocations is how you classify certain leukemias – can pick trx based on certain translocations In some of these translocations, we actually take a proto-oncogene (we all have proto- oncogenes) (they are found on every single chromosome) during translocation, if it breaks at a certain spot –active proto-oncogene to an oncogene (a tumor forming gene) – don’t always have to have translocation – can be activated via chemicals/radiation, etc.; certain viruses, toxins can induce leukemias Clone Most tumors come from a single clone – a single cell has gone bad that continues to replicate; a disease can be clonal Stage 0 = really small A 1 site
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  • Fall '12
  • professoridon'tknow
  • white blood cell, WBC, Leukemias, WBC Disorders Cont.

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