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•The database keyencrypts data encryption keys in the cluster. The database key is a randomly-generated AES- 256 key. It is stored on disk in a separate network from the Amazon Redshift cluster and encrypted by a master key. Amazon Redshift passes the database key across a secure channel and keeps it in memory in the cluster. •The cluster keyencrypts the database key for the Amazon Redshift cluster. You can use either AWS or a hardware security module (HSM) to store the cluster key. HSMs provide direct control of key generation and management, and make key management separate and distinct from the application and the database.
Amazon Web Services – Overview of Security ProcessesPage 66 •The master keyencrypts the cluster key if it is stored in AWS. The master key encrypts the cluster-key-encrypted database key if the cluster key is stored in an HSM. You can have Redshift rotate the encryption keys for your encrypted clusters at any time. As part of the rotation process, keys are also updated for all of the cluster's automatic and manual snapshots. Note:Enabling encryption in your cluster will impact performance, even though it is hardware accelerated. Encryption also applies to backups. When restoring from an encrypted snapshot, the new cluster will be encrypted as well. To encrypt your table load data files when you upload them to Amazon S3, you can use Amazon S3 server-side encryption. When you load the data from Amazon S3, the COPY command will decrypt the data as it loads the table. Database Audit Logging Amazon Redshift logs all SQL operations, including connection attempts, queries, and changes to your database. You can access these logs using SQL queries against system tables or choose to have them downloaded to a secure Amazon S3 bucket. You can then use these audit logs to monitor your cluster for security and troubleshooting purposes. Automatic Software Patching Amazon Redshift manages all the work of setting up, operating, and scaling your data warehouse, including provisioning capacity, monitoring the cluster, and applying patches and upgrades to the Amazon Redshift engine. Patches are applied only during specified maintenance windows. SSL Connections To protect your data in transit within the AWS cloud, Amazon Redshift uses hardware-accelerated SSL to communicate with Amazon S3 or Amazon DynamoDB for COPY, UNLOAD, backup, and restore operations. You can encrypt the connection between your client and the cluster by specifying SSL in the parameter group associated with the cluster. To have your clients also authenticate the Redshift server, you can install the public key (.pem file) for the SSL certificate on your client and use the key to connect to your clusters.
Amazon Web Services – Overview of Security ProcessesPage 67 Amazon Redshift offers the newer, stronger cipher suites that use the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral protocol. ECDHE allows SSL clients to provide Perfect Forward Secrecy between the client and the Redshift cluster.
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Amazon Web Services, AWS, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud