However as new evidence has emerged it is found these

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However as new evidence has emerged, it is found these technologies were present during the Roman Iron Age. It is now thought that sails may have been adopted in Scandinavia several centuries before the Viking Age. If something meaningful did change, it is likely to be how existing technology was employed, such as changes in shifting practices, or 24 hour sailing. In this hypothetical eventuality, we could best interpret change as reflecting the motivation to travel further and quicker - and thus as an effect of the Viking Age. In brief, ships capable of carrying warrior’s long distances are a necessary pre-requisite for the Viking Age, but clearly they did not ‘cause’ it. ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM - Climate is the second old chestnut of limited relevance, specifically the impact of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). However this has been rebuffed as many historians disagree regarding the timing, impact, size, and relevance of the medieval warm period, and whether or not it impacted the Viking Age. DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINISM - nebulous popular pressure can be dismissed as a realistic cause of the Viking Age. The chronology of expansion varies by region in Scandinavia. Relating to the issue of demography is a more implicit, but widely held, assumption that Viking Age settlement expansion entailed a mechanistic, ‘wave of advance’ in which Germanic-speaking peoples of Scandinavia slowly colonised neighbouring territories. The ‘wave of advance’ model is ultimately traceable to post-Viking Age Icelandic and Norwegian sources in which early pirate settlements in the Northern Isles were assumed to have existed. However, there is no evidence from settlement sites, graves, hoards, or documentary record to suggest that Scandinavian migrants were living in Atlantic Scotland prior to the mid-9 th century. After this date there is clear evidence of the spread of information and objects around the Irish Sea. Rather than spreading gradually from a source population, migrants move along networks. The nodes of these Networks are places which have either what the migrants seek, or information and support to help them find it. There is limited quantity of evidence for human migration patterns from isotopic analysis of teeth from Viking Age burials in Atlantic Scotland. It too many imply the redistribution of population around the ‘insular’ world, rather than direct immigration from Scandinavia. Thus distances are conceptualised by social space, rather than physical geography - potentially leading to ‘leap-frog’ patterns of movement. Exam Revision 6
In support of the ‘leap-frog’ hypothesis, the distances to travel in early medieval Northern Europe were small in terms of sailing and rowing time - particularly in comparison with contemporary land travel. The in earliest decades of the Viking Age the objective of short-term Scandinavian migrants was portable wealth.

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