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Q9 to q11 among the myths taken as fact by the

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Q9 to Q11: Among the myths taken as fact by the environmental manag- ers of most corporations is the Line belief that environmental regula- (5) tions affect all competitors in a given industry uniformly. In reality, regulatory costs—and therefore compliance—fall unevenly, economically disad- (10) vantaging some companies and benefiting others. For example, a plant situated near a number of larger noncompliant competi- tors is less likely to attract the (15) attention of local regulators than is an isolated plant, and less attention means lower costs. Additionally, large plants can spread compliance costs such (20) as waste treatment across a larger revenue base; on the other hand, some smaller plants may not even be subject to certain provisions such as permit or (25) reporting requirements by virtue of their size. Finally, older pro- duction technologies often continue to generate toxic wastes 5
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that were not regulated when the (30) technology was first adopted. New regulations have imposed extensive compliance costs on companies still using older industrial coal-fired burners that (35) generate high sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide outputs, for example, whereas new facilities generally avoid processes that would create such waste pro- (40) ducts. By realizing that they have discretion and that not all industries are affected equally by environmental regulation, environmental managers can (45) help their companies to achieve a competitive edge by anticipat- ing regulatory pressure and exploring all possibilities for addressing how changing regula- (50) tions will affect their companies specifically. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q9: Which of the following hypothetical examples would best illustrate the point the author makes in lines 40-51 (“By realizing … specifically.”)? A. Believing its closest competitor is about to do the same, a plant reduces its output of a toxic chemical at great cost in order to comply with environmental regulations. B. In the face of new environmental regulations, a plant maintains its production methods and passes the costs of compliance on to its customers. C. A plant’s manager learns of a competitor’s methods of lowering environmental compliance costs but is reluctant to implement those methods. D. Having learned of an upcoming environmental ban on a certain chemical, a company designs its new plant to employ processes that avoid use of that chemical. E. A plant attempts to save money by refusing to comply with environmental laws. Answer: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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