o result stimulated production but Hollywood was still dominant o Some

O result stimulated production but hollywood was

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to reduce foreign influence on morals, culture, language, etc. o result: stimulated production, but Hollywood was still dominant o Some countries introduced tariffs, required dubbing into local languages, censorship, etc. C) Industrial And Economic Infrastructure, Technical Capacity, Personnel needed : secure source of capital D) Stable Political Situation : o Spanish Civil War, WWII, Russian Revolution, Etc. E) Exports: Important in early years, later became more of a bonus. o Countries whose home audience could not support a local industry did not sustain an industry on exports When sound came in, foreign films virtually disappeared from mainstream U.S. theatres o some "art" films made it, dubbed or sub-titled o some British/English-language films made it o foreign-language films imported for native speakers, small ethnic audiences o this changed somewhat in post-WWII period Result: a few robust national cinemas, some weak or govt-supported industries (i.e., exist due to govt support only), some "cottage industry" national cinemas that don't qualify as "industries." IMPACT OF SOUND ON INTERNATIONAL FILM PRODUCTION The development of Sound temporarily saved national cinemas 16
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o PROS (for national cinemas) dubbing took time to develop so films in native language were important local themes, customs could be used as selling points o CONS (for national cinemas) cost to make and show sound films significant technology required o most countries lagged behind Hollywood in adoption of sound foreign language movies now even less exportable IMPACT ON HOLLYWOOD INDUSTRY: Hollywood limited markets in English-speaking countries until the development of dubbing o some foreign-language versions were shot but this process went away o significant backlog of silent films not useful after a certain point in U.S. but could be sold overseas where sound had not caught on o financial investment required for change-over at all levels Quickly, Hollywood regained dominant role o Dubbing & sub-title became routine o international audiences still wanted Hollywood films and stars MODES OF PRODUCTION OTHER THAN COMMERCIAL today : when making a movie, there are options: a. gets shown at festival, etc. get picked up by distributor b. direct to DVD c. TV/cable d. internet e. sells it yourself Prior to 1950s, NONE of these alternative outlets existed. If you made a movie, you had only the regular theatrical distribution system to get it shown, with a few exceptions... FILMS MADE/SHOWN OUTSIDE STANDARD THEATRICAL VENUES : Art films - experimental films made by artists, amateurs, students, etc. o Non-"professional" movies " Non-theatrical films "- "professional" movies not made with regular commercial exhibition in mind documentaries religious films political films sponsored films (by companies, organizations, etc.) educational films 17
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Exploitation movies : o shown in their own "circuit" of theatres o Similarly: black-cast movies, ethnic movies--made for limited audiences sometimes made in "off hours" by professional filmmakers Lecture 5- France
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