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to reduce foreign influence on morals, culture, language, etc.oresult:stimulated production, but Hollywood was still dominantoSome countries introduced tariffs, required dubbing into local languages, censorship, etc.C) Industrial And Economic Infrastructure, Technical Capacity, Personnelneeded: secure source of capitalD) Stable Political Situation: oSpanish Civil War, WWII, Russian Revolution, Etc.E) Exports: Important in early years, later became more of a bonus. oCountries whose home audience could not support a local industry did not sustain an industry on exportsWhen sound came in, foreign films virtually disappeared from mainstream U.S. theatresosome "art" films made it, dubbed or sub-titledosome British/English-language films made itoforeign-language films imported for native speakers, small ethnic audiencesothis changed somewhat in post-WWII period Result: a few robust national cinemas, some weak or govt-supported industries (i.e., exist due to govt support only), some "cottage industry" national cinemas that don't qualify as "industries."IMPACT OF SOUND ON INTERNATIONAL FILM PRODUCTION The development of Soundtemporarilysaved national cinemas16
oPROS (for national cinemas)dubbing took time to develop so films in native language were importantlocal themes, customs could be used as selling pointsoCONS (for national cinemas)cost to make and show sound films significant technology requiredomost countries lagged behind Hollywood in adoption of soundforeign language movies now even less exportableIMPACT ON HOLLYWOOD INDUSTRY:Hollywood limited markets in English-speaking countries until the development of dubbingosome foreign-language versions were shot but this process went awayosignificant backlog of silent films not useful after a certain point in U.S. but could be sold overseas where sound had not caught onofinancial investment required for change-over at all levelsQuickly, Hollywood regained dominant roleoDubbing& sub-title became routineointernational audiences still wanted Hollywood films and starsMODES OF PRODUCTION OTHER THAN COMMERCIALtoday: when making a movie, there are options: a. gets shown at festival, etc. get picked up by distributorb. direct to DVDc. TV/cabled. internete. sells it yourself Prior to 1950s, NONE of these alternative outlets existed. If you made a movie, you had only the regular theatrical distribution system to get it shown, with a few exceptions...FILMS MADE/SHOWN OUTSIDE STANDARD THEATRICAL VENUES:Art films- experimental films made by artists, amateurs, students, etc. oNon-"professional" movies"Non-theatrical films"- "professional" movies not made with regular commercial exhibition in minddocumentariesreligious filmspolitical filmssponsored films (by companies, organizations, etc.)educational films 17
Exploitation movies:oshown in their own "circuit" of theatresoSimilarly: black-cast movies, ethnic movies--made for limited audiencessometimes made in "off hours" by professional filmmakersLecture 5- France