The French rhetoric of liberty and equality marked a promising advance in

The french rhetoric of liberty and equality marked a

This preview shows page 88 - 90 out of 280 pages.

their influence on built reality in Italy. The French rhetoric of liberty and equality marked a promising advance in Enlightenment progress.A rationalist spirit was turned on to political and religious institutions by a secularist and materialist intellectual class seeking the benefits of free enterprise. In reality, Italians were free only as far as French foreign policy would allow, as was most evident in the south where plutarchies formed in the absence of any bourgeoisie.The Neapolitan republic lasted only 150 days, yet the experience of political action was invaluable.Trenchant campanilismo , the sense of local allegiance defined metaphorically by the distance at which one’s parish church bells could be heard, was dismantled for the first time in modern Italian history and replaced with a sensation of a national consciousness. Concerted forces of the old order—King Ferdinando IV, who retreated to Sicily, and General Suvarov, head of an Austro-Russian 88 the architecture of modern italy
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army—temporarily regained control, but by May 1800 Napoleon was once again in Italy. He retook Lombardy, reconstructed the Cisalpine Republic, and eventually marched through all the peninsula’s regions including Austrian Tyrol and along the Istrian coast toward Trieste. Contrary to his first ebullient apparition of 1796, Napoleon’s new goals for Italy were to establish more stable, long-lasting changes to the civil landscape. His legal code was applied uniformly across the former patchwork of customs, and a territorial organization set up with prefects assigned to public works projects, such as the new Simplon alpine pass. In January 1802, the “Repubblica Italiana” was named, and two years later, at Napoleon’s coronation as emperor, Italy became a kingdom. Napoleon appointed his siblings to governing positions across his empire. Joseph, Napoleon’s elder brother, was made king of Naples and then later of Spain; Elisa, his sister, became the grand duchess of Tuscany; and a stepson, Eugène de Beauharnais, viceroy at Milan. Pauline was wed to a Borghese prince in Rome, and Caroline Bonaparte’s husband, Joachim Murat, succeeded Joseph at Naples. In the regions not significantly prepared in Enlightenment reform, the applications of Napoleonic administration came as a shock.While Naples’Albergo dei Poveri was finally if incompletely up and running, all the good will of Murat could do little to bridge effectively the gulf of social and economic differences in his charge. Not all of Napoleon’s policies promoted Italy’s best interests.The concessions exacted of Rome by the Treaty of Tolentino specified the removal of one hundred artworks among the paintings and statues of its public collections at the Capitoline and Vatican. Dominique-Vivant Denon, Napoleon’s art advisor in Paris, selected pieces from Albani’s and Braschi’s collections for a Musée Napoléon at the Louvre. Pauline made many works available from the Borghese collection for her brother’s purchase.When the convoys from Venice, Florence, and Rome arrived in Paris, triumphal processions were staged and the
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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