Assignment 3 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 11
peristaltic contraction. The ampulla is the dilated portion of the ductus deferens. The terminal ampulla of ductus deferens join seminal vesicle duct, and together they form the ejaculatory duct on each side. Each ejaculatory duct is only 2 cm long, and they terminate in the prostatic urethra. At prostatic urethra, ejaculatory ducts eject sperm and seminal vesiclesecretions. The urethra is a passageway for semen and urine. There are three parts of urethra. The Prostatic urethra passes through the prostate. The intermediate (membranous) urethra passes through deep muscles of the perineum, and spongy urethra passes through the corpus spongiosum of the penis. The corpus spongiosum penis keeps the spongy urethra open during ejaculation Through the external urethral orifice, the sperm exit the male reproductive system. Semen consists of sperm cells and secretions from the accessory sex glands, which include seminal vesicles (seminal gland), the prostate and the bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands). The seminal vesicles secrete seminal fluids that help neutralize the acid in the female reproductive tract. They secrete fructose for ATP production by sperm. They secrete prostaglandins, which contributes to sperm motility and viability. The clotting proteins that they secreted are different from those in blood. The clotting proteins also coagulate semen after ejaculation. The prostate has milky, slightly acidic secretion that contains enzymes thatbreak down clotting proteins from the seminal vesicles. Seminalplasmin in prostate destroys bacteria. Prostatic secretion contributes to sperm motility and viability. Bulbourethral glandslie inferior to the prostate on either side of the membranous urethra within the deep muscle of the perineum, and their ducts open into the spongy urethra. The bulbourethral glands secrete an alkaline fluid that helps to neutralize the acidic environment of the urethra. Its mucus lubricates the lining of the urethra and the tip of the penis during sexual intercourse. Therefore, the secretion from bulbourethral glands helps to decrease the number of sperm damaged during ejaculation. The semen is ejected through the penis. Then The semen from male travel to the female vagina through the vaginal orifice. The vagina, a tubular canal lined with mucous membrane,is the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse. It extends from the exterior of the body to the uterine cervix. On either side of the vagina orifice, the greater vestibular glands produce a small amount of mucus during sexual activity that adds to cervical mucus and provides lubrication. The cervical mucus supplements the energy needs of sperm. Cervix and
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