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Marginal man or the tragic mulatto 3 etc it was

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marginal man, or the tragic mulatto3etc.). It was assumed that most mixed individualsassumed the identity of their minority parent and progressed accordingly.As such many2In the United States Whites have clung to the belief that their racial heritage is pure (Johnson 2003, p.97).3Bullock (2010) suggests that this and seven other themes persist about multiracial Americans. Thesethemes include: 1) tragic mulatto syndrome, 2) having to choose creates no community, 3) mixing races isa contemporary phenomena, 4) the black and white binary is applicable to all, 5) multiracial people do notface discrimination, 6) passing for mixed, 7) there is a global multiracial history, and 8) identification asmixed race is a person, political and historical process. Some of these are dealt with in the findings of thisresearch project (p.46).
23multiracials were subsumed under racial identity development theories that were gearedtoward monoracial identity.Racial Identity DevelopmentRacial identity is the “the degree to which a person feels connected to or sharescommonalities with an ethnic-racial group” (Johnson, 2002 p. 73). Poston (1990)defined racial identity as “pride in one’s racial and cultural identity” (p. 152). Accordingto Hitlin, Brown and Elder (2005) racial development is inherently social, as racialdifferences in the American context are shaped within racially-structured, sometimesdiscriminatory, practices and interactions” (p. 1). As such, the racial identity of a Whiteperson differs from that of an African American person and so on. For people of color(i.e. African Americans, Asian Americans, multiracial Americans) racial identityinvolves “a White imposed racial identity versus an internal self striving to have one’sown identity free of that racially imposed identity” (Chou & Feagin, 2008, p.121). One’sracial pride and self-identity is often at war with the stereotypes and myths that are sopervasive in society about your racial group (imposed identity). As DuBois suggested,one may be constantly forced to deal with the twoness society forces upon you. AsChavez and Guido-DiBrito (1999) state “racial identity is a surface-level manifestationbased on what we look like yet has deep implications in how we are treated” (p. 40).Racial identity formation occurs within the context of not just self-identification butpublic identification and even imposed identification as well.
24The racial identity formation literature now suggests that multiracial individuals’personal identity formation process is different from that of a monoracial person4, but formany years, except in the cases of Park (1928) and Stonequist (1937), the literaturefocused on using minority identity development models to explain multiracialindividuals’ identity development. The first sociological literature that focused onmultiracial identity was that of Park (1928) and Stonequist (1937). The idea of themarginal man was not focused solely on the ‘tragic mulatto5’ but it did state that theracial hierarchy in the United States forced those who were White/Black to ignore their

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Term
Summer
Professor
edward kisiangani
Tags
Multiracial identity development

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