Help predict how conforming people will be o in

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Help predict how conforming people will be o In collectivist countries People are more responsive to others’ influence o Cultural differences also exist within any country (Stephens, 2007) Working-class people tend to prefer similarity to others Middle-class people more strongly preferred to see themselves as unique individuals o Conformity and obedience are universal phenomena Vary across cultures and eras - Social roles o Allow some freedom of interpretation to those who act them out Some aspects of any role must be performed o When only a few norms are associated with a social category Do not regard the position as a social role o Powerful effects
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Tend to absorb our roles As you internalize the role self-consciousness subsides o Process of conforming will have shifted one’s behavior, values and identity to accommodate a different place o One must re-conform to one’s former roles before being back in sync o Our actions depend not only on the power of the situation Also on our personalities Note everyone responds in the same way to pressure to conform Social situations can move most normal people to behave in abnormal ways o Role reversal Role playing can be a positive force By intentionally playing a new role and conforming to its expectations People sometimes change themselves or empathize will people whose roles differ from their own Roles often come in pairs defined by relationships Role reversals can help each understand the other Do we ever want to be different? - We may act according to our own values o Independently of the forces that push upon us - Knowing that someone is trying to coerce us may even prompt us to react in the opposite direction - Reactance o Individuals value their sense of freedom and self-efficacy o When blatant social pressure threatens their sense of freedom Often rebel o People act to protect their sense of freedom o Arises when someone threatens our freedom of action o Boomerang effect Produced by attempting to restrict a person’s freedom - Asserting uniqueness o People feel uncomfortable when they appear too different from others o In individualistic Western cultures Also feel uncomfortable when they appear exactly like everyone else o People feel better when they see themselves as moderately unique (Snyder & Fromkin, 1980) o Those deprived of their feeling of uniqueness The one most likely to assert their individuality by nonconformity
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o Individuals who have the highest need for uniqueness Tend to be the least responsive to majority influence (Imhoff & Erb, 2009) o Social influence and the desire for uniqueness appear in popular baby names o Seeing oneself as unique appears in people’s spontaneous self-concepts Most likely to mention their distinctive attributes (McGuire et al., 1979) o More keenly aware of our gender when we are with people of the other gender o One is conscious of oneself insofar as, and in the ways that, one is different (McGuire) o
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