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permanent feature of all human experience (and not just something that randomly occurs sometime). It is the goal of Kant’s argument to demonstrate how individuals can actualize this good will and why it is they need to come to see this actualization as something they necessarily mustdo. The way this works out is that Kant comes to understand that agents act according to the good will whenever they tap into their rationality. Thus the good will becomes the rational will. From this linkage Kant goes on to demonstrate how the moral law arises from the rational laws that we derive from our rational reflections on the good will, i.e. when we reflect rationally on what rationality demands. Because the moral law is derived from reason, Kant holds that the moral law will apply universally to any living thing that possesses reason, that means anything with a human brain. In this sense Kant argues morality is universal because the exact same moral laws rests within every single person, and when each person rationally reflects within themselves they will find reason demanding they do the same thing.What the most of Kant’s ethics consists in is the elucidation and systematization of the different moral laws which we find when we examine reason. The way this comes about and how it all works is the crucial aspect of Kant’s ethical system. What we just discussed is merely the introduction and groundwork, and the main thing you need to get out of it is the following: The Good will is the only thing that is wholly good, the good will is universal in that it rests within each person, rationality tells us to follow the good will if we want to act ethically, the goal of ethics is to study what it is reason tells us to do, i.e. it is to describe the structure of the good will. The more good will a person cultivates within themselves on Kant’s account the better that person is – they are of “moral worth.”The Moral Requirement and DUTY/OBLIGATION – the Categorical versus Hypothetical Imperative: Intentions and MotivesThe most crucial part of Kant’s ethics in terms of applying and thinking about particular problems can be found in the following few sections – so pay attention yo.Kant’s most important ethical concept is that of “Duty” or “Obligation.” For Kant whenever the individual acts in order to keep or obey by the moral law, i.e. the dictates of reason, and whenever an individual acts according to duty the good can be understood as being realized in the concrete world. Hence part of Kant’s goal is to get people acting rationally, but another part is dedicated to understanding just what it means to act from duty. Here is where Kant begins to diverge greatly from theethical theories we have read thus far, as where Aristotle thinks of ethics in terms of virtues and Bentham/Mill think of ethics in terms of the Greatest Happiness Principle, Kant thinks of ethics accordingto duty, and only when an individual acts from duty can they be considered as acting ethically.