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behavior is “delegating.” Thus in summary, effective leaders need to be able to adapttheir chosen style to fit the requirements of the situation – they need to know not onlywhen to use a particular style, but also how to make each style fit the situation in order tomaximize the performance of subordinates.[BK] “The Hero as King” by Thomas Carlyle in The Leader’s Companion, pp.53 -54.The Hero as King:Carlyle talks about the last form of heroism being kingship. He argues that if you find the “Ablest Man” and raise him to a supreme place and revere him, you have a perfect government for that country, i.e. there is no need for ballots, parliament, voting, constitutions, etc. because nothing will improve it – it is in the perfect state. He says that the “Ablest Man” is the most just, the truest-hearted, and the noblest.[BK] “Rulers and Generals are ‘History’s Slaves’ ” by Leo Tolstoy in The Leader’s Companion, pp. 55 – 59.Rulers and Generals as ‘History’s Slaves’:Tolstoy argues that the higher a man standson the social ladder, the more people he is connected with, and the more power he hasover others, the more evident is the predestination and inevitability of his every action.In this way, a king is ‘history’s slave.’ Every act of these leaders, which appears to theman act of their own will, is in a historical sense involuntary and related to the wholecourse of history, being predestined from eternity. He uses the example of Napoleonand Alexander to say that their actions, on whose words the Russian war in 1812seemed to hang, were as little voluntary as the actions of any soldier drawn into the warbecause in order for their wills to be carried out, the concurrence of innumerable(historical) circumstances was needed and without any of which, the event could nothave taken place. In this way, though leaders may live consciously for themselves, theyare an unconscious instrument in the attainment of the historical, universal aims ofhumanity.
Key Points/Concepts from LectureThere are many different definitions of leadership, but generally, leadership is“exercised when persons with certain motives and purposes mobilize, in competitionor conflict with others, institutional, political, psychological, and other resources so asto arouse, engage, and satisfy the motives of followers” (Burns). In order to get to our contemporary idea of leadership, we must look at ClassicalTheories of Leadership – there are 2 camps:1.Prescriptive “How to”is what you have to do so that your actions areconsidered to be leadership (3 types): A.Rhetorical Leadership(Aristotle): using speech to persuadecommunicating and can be used for manipulating followersB.Military Leadership(Sun Tzu): using strategy and tactics, information andplanningC.Political Leadership(Machiavelli/Castiglione): adopting a leadership style,focusing on relationship between leader and followers, and doingwhatever is necessary in order to protect interests of the greater goodand a community2.