by the quality of the rubric used to evaluate the students work Cavanaugh

By the quality of the rubric used to evaluate the

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by the quality of the rubric used to evaluate the student’s wo rk. Cavanaugh, Dawson, and Ritzhaupt (2011) found that how teachers perceive the role of the computing device had an impact on instructional and learning outcomes. When the computing devices were seen as a tool to facilitate change in teaching practices then student achievement was positively impacted. Cavanaugh, Dawson, and Ritzhaupt (2011) also illustrated the need for professional development when implementing technology into instruction in order to ensure that changes in teaches practices could evolve from the integration of computers into the classroom. Lei and Zhao (2008) concluded that how the computers were being used in instruction had a greater positive impact than the amount of time spent using computers. In Lei and Zhao’s study, the students a nd teachers had easy access to computer resources and wireless Internet access, both at school and home. Teachers were also provided convenient and efficient professional development, including access to a local university’s resources. Surveys were administered to students, teachers, and parents in order to collect data on computer use and attitudes. Students took two surveys, one at the beginning of the year prior to receiving their laptops and the other at the end of the year, following instruction using the laptops. An interview process was also conducted on a subset of students and teachers to gauge perspectives on the impact the technology had on learning. From this data, the researchers concluded that how the computers were being used in instruction had a greater positive impact than the amount of time spent using computers. Mixed student achievement results were attributed to the inconsistent integration of computers into the curriculum and a need for better
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MOBILE DEVICE IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE 13 assessment methods for student achievement. Li and Zhao’s (2008) work interestingly found that some parents and teachers were resistant to computer use in instruction. Some parents preferred students to use books and some teachers worried that students would not retain the ability to read and write with paper and pencil. Concerns among teachers included a fear of devaluing the traditional ways of learning that would occur as students replaced books, pen, and paper with laptops and software applications. Though not impactful on this study, it warrants some consideration as to the impact of teacher and parent perceptions of supplanting the plant identification practice of using real tangible plant samples with a digital representation. Li and Zhao’s (2008) work provides valuable insight into designing how the 1:1 devices will be integrated into instruction during this study. Their findings suggested the quality of computer integration into instruction is more important than ad hoc access for the sake of using the device. In order to take advantage of all that computers have to offer in the classroom, as many adoption barriers as possible must be identified.
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