Rather than by identity o prototypes may become

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rather than by identity o Prototypes may become stereotypes , especially with little other info Adaptive Account of Memory Memory = limited & fallible Memory failures reflect design memory system analogy : illusions reflecting design of perc’al systems 7 ‘Sins’ of Memory (Schacter) Document when our memory systems fail us
o Failures of memory : explored to determine how memory systems shaped via selection o Weaknesses of memory : reflect design of functioning memory systems that work well in most cases 1. Transience : gradual weakening/loss of memory over time o Adaptive function : most info is mundane & older info less likely to be relevant 2. Absent-mindedness : breakdown btwn attention & memory ; didn’t attend to/encode this info o Adaptive function : attention directs memory & can’t attend to everything at once 3. Blocking (retrieval failure) : failure to retrieve info in memory (e.g., word on tip of tongue) o May partly be due to : transience, memory decay o Memory inhibition : limits perpetual priming chains; occasional misdirected inhibition leads to blocking 4. Misattribution : forgetting source of info (less imprt than info content) o Formation of derived memories : loss of info & incrs efficiency of memory system 5. Suggestibility : incorrect memories result of leading Qs (“how fast was car going when smashed into tree?”) o Derivation of memories : lead to forgetting of source; more efficient & necessary for abstract thought o Lure or cue words : may lead to false impression of source of info 6. Bias : unconsciously editing memories o Self-deception : may incr believability as sincere & honest cooperator; incr in +’ve self-image 7. Persistence : repeated recall of disturbing or unpleasant events o Stressful events most likely critical for survival & imprt to rmbr o PTSD : may reflect extreme instance of adapted process Reasoning & Decision Making in Uncertain World Decision-making processes : flawed relies on fast & frugal heuristics not rationally thinking o Reveal features of how minds were shaped to work by NS o Cheater detection : makes an otherwise difficult cognitive task easy Rationality : making decisions under conditions of uncertainty o Prob theory : mathematical application (not how mind works) o Unbounded rationality : unlimited knowledge, computational power, & time o Optimized rationality : avoids interminable calculations (stopping rules : deter when costs of further computation no longer worth it); adds to computational power req’d o Bounded rationality : recognizes computational limits; fast & frugal heuristics reduce comp’al demand Algorithms : computationally expensive & potentially unaffordable Heuristics : fast & easy; may lead to errors/biases representativeness & base-rate neglect o Fallible, but often best we’ve got o Recognition heuristic (which city is larger, New Orleans or Campbellford?) o 1-Good reason heuristic (which town is larger, Green Bay Wisconsin or London ON?) o Take best heuristic (which is fastest route?) Representativeness Fallacies Conjunction fallacy

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