7 muscle flashcards.doc

29 what is a muscle stem cell called myoblast 30 why

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29. What is a muscle stem cell called? MYOBLAST 30. Why are there almost no muscle diseases? Because adults have myoblasts and because muscle can heal. 31. What 2 things are needed for muscle contraction? NERVE SIGNAL and CALCIUM 32. What is a MOTOR UNIT? A single neuron and all of the muscle fibers on which it synapses. 33. What happens to muscles after much Exercise HYPERTROPHY (Hyper=above normal)
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Muscles Flashcards exercise? (growth in size); can happen in two ways: 1. Increase in number of myofibrils 2. Increase in number of myofilaments Those two things cause an increase in size of individual myofibers NOTE: the number of myofibers does NOT increase 34. What happens to muscles after lack of use? Lack of use ATROPHY. 35. What are characteristics of muscle atrophy? a) It is caused by lack of use b) myofilaments within the muscle decrease in size c) severe atrophy involves replacement of muscle fibers with connective tissue d) damaged nerve and immobilization in a cast can cause atrophy Atrophy generally does NOT involve loss of muscle cells unless it is severe. 36. What is MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY caused from? This is a genetic lack of a protein called DISTROPHIN. 37. What is lacking in muscular dystrophy? The protein, dystrophin. Without it, the muscles turn to connective tissue and harden. 38. What is the main symptom of muscular dystrophy? The muscle cell won’t contract = paralysis. 39. When smooth muscle contracts around the intestines, the movement is called? PERISTALSIS. 40. What type of muscle has a series of gap junctions (for cell-to-cell communication) and desmosomes (that hold cells together) which join each cell? Cardiac Muscle 41. Fill in the table: Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Involuntary or voluntary? Striated or non- striated Where is it found? Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Invol voluntary? Volun Involun Involun Striated or nonstriated Striated Non- striated Striated Where is it found? Inserts onto bones blood vessels, uterus, intestines, bladder, other organs Myocardium of heart 42. What is the normal state of a muscle, MUSCLE TONE
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Muscles Flashcards with some contraction? 43. What is the molecular energy needed for MUSCLE CONTRACTION? 44. What do the mitochondria need in order to produce this energy? ATP. The mitochondria need oxygen and the sugars that are in storage to produce this energy. 45. What are MUSCLE SPASMS 46. How can you avoid them? Sudden and involuntary muscle contractions. Usually caused from overexertion. Needs heat and massage to increase circulation. You can avoid muscle spasms by stretching before and after activities. 47. What is OXYGEN DEBT? 48. How do you know when you have it? The amount of oxygen needed to replenish the supply following aerobic demand. You experience oxygen debt when you continue to breathe heavily after exercising 49. Name 4 physiological benefits of exercise: improved muscular strength, endurance, flexibility improved cardio-respiratory endurance increased bone density and strength relief from depression and increased HDLs 50. Which characteristic of skeletal muscle allows the fibers to be stretched?
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  • Fall '08
  • Harrison,C
  • muscle spasms, Muscles Flashcards

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