Proximity as an accentuator: If person is disagreeable, proximity hurts If person is NOT disagreeable, proximity helps Ex: roommates The Role of familiarity: Mere exposure efect: the more you see it the more you like it
+ Similarity: Main types Demographics Age, ethnicity, culture, religion, race, education, IQ Personality Values & Attitudes Newcomb’s (1956) study on he “Experimental Dorm” Measured attitudes prior to arriving (sex, family, politics) Greater liking with similar attitudes
+ Similarity: Why? Reassuring, validating Convergence of goals, desires, needs Familiarity= comfort, security Approval from others (family) Similarity expected liking attraction
+ Reciprocity 60 pairs of students 5 min. conversations Manipulated A’s beliefs. Tell A after 5 min conversations B says they like or don’t like you 10 min. discussion Made a diference in how much A likes B If A hears that B likes A then A likes B more and acts in a way to make B like A so then B likes A too
+ Reciprocity: Limits What about flattery? ingration
+ Why is reciprocity so attractive? The need to belong The pain of rejection
+ Reciprocity: Avoid rejection Would you ask someone out if you thought they would say no? No one wants to risk rejection Desirability= physical attraction + probability of acceptance
+ Sex (Gender) 2/3
+ Reading: Sexual Economics- Sex as female resource for social exchange Becker’s four assumptions Individual choices are shaped by costs and benefits Scarce but desirable resources are allocated by price shifts Sellers compete with each other People seek to maximize their outcomes In exchange for sex man must give more than participation: gives the woman material gifts, consideration and respect, commitment. Value is by preference Possibility for why female is supplier Female have more investment in reproduction Males have more of a sex drive Sex was one of the few resources women had to barter for access to social resources Low cost substitutes: prostitution and porn-> lowe Competition Among Women An attractive woman can command a higher price than others A woman’s sexual favors lose value as she distributes them widely= incentive to be selective
+ What comes to mind when you hear… Act like a lady What happens if women do not adhere to these expectations? Act like a man What happens if men do not adhere to these expectations? Always like a girl commercial
+ Femininity and Masculinity Margaret Mead- Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935) Arapesh: both males and females displayed what we would consider “feminine” temperament Passive, cooperative, expressive Mundugamor: both males and females displayed what we would consider “masculine” temperament Active, competitive, instrumental Tchambuli: men and women displayed temperaments that
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