Transient receptor potential ion channel (TRP): Many types of nociceptors and thermoreceptors have this; respond to temperature and contain and ion channelMechanoreceptors – TouchoLocated at different depths and kinds of skin and respond to different touch stimuli. Like nociceptors, these receptors are found at different densities on different parts of the bodyoExamples of touch receptors:Hair follicle receptorsMeissner corpuscles: Receptors sensitive to fine touch, concentrated in hairless skinPacinian corpuscles: Pressure-sensitive receptors deep below the skin in the subcutaneous tissueRuffini corpuscles: Sensitive to touch pressure and duration, tonic receptors located near the surface of the skinMerkel’s disks: Tonic receptors located near the surface of the skin that are sensitive to touch pressure and durationProprioceptors & BaroreceptorsoProprioceptors: Monitor the position and movement of the bodyoBaroreceptors: Monitor blood pressure
oMuscle tensionMuscle spindles: Proprioceptors in musclesGolgi tendon organs: Proprioceptors in tendonsoBlood PressureIn the arteries that supply blood to the brain (carotid sinus) andin the aortic arch located very close to the heartCarotid sinusAortic archSound DetectionoAquatic vs Terrestrial soundMany animals that live in either land or water hear because sound waves travel through both air and wateroAquatic vs Terrestrial hearing structuresOtolithsThe main structure of fish hearing structures is otoliths Otoliths are denser than water because fish are about thesame density as the water surrounding them, they need ahearing structure of a different density in order to detect sound waves, otherwise the waves would pass through themOuter, middle, inner earHuman earsOuter and middle ear: Convert sound waves into motion of solid structures and transfer the motion to the liquid ofthe inner ear
Inner ear: Receptors for sound wavesSounds waves first strike the tympanic membrane because it transfers the vibrations to the bones of the middle earOval ear: Transfer sound into the inner ear Transduction – The Cochlea oCochlea: Aspiral shaped compound structure that is fluid filled in the inner earoSound waves are pressure waves that travel through the fluid of the cochlear duct and strike the organ of corti which is made of several structuresoCochlear ductOrgan of cortiBasilar membrane: Pressure waves vibrate the membraneSensory hair cells: Embedded in the basilar membraneStereocilia: T
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