Of these 265 million employees 13 million are

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). Of these 26.5 million employees, 13 million are employed in the clothing sector and 13.5 million in the textiles sector. These fi gures are only people employed in manufacturing not retail or other supporting sectors (Allwood et al. 2006 ). Against this background, there is no doubt that the textile (and fashion) industry is important in the economy. However, taking into account the concept of sus- tainability, this industry often operates to the detriment of environmental and social factors (Gardetti and Torres 2011 ). Therefore, this chapter presents two initiatives: the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) s Higg Index 2.0 and the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) s Code of Conduct and Manual for the Fashion and Textile Industry. The main purpose of both organizations and their relevant ini- tiatives are to have textile and fashion companies and brands reduce their (negative) social and environmental impact throughout their supply chain. Moreover, this chapter presents and describes the elements of both initiatives, analyzing their differences and providing thoughts in the light of the impacts of this sector. Finally, some recommendations are made. 2 Methodology The methodology used to prepare this chapter is based on the analysis of the SAC s Higg Index 2.0 and the UNGC s Code of Conduct and Manual for the Fashion and Textile Industry, in the areas of human rights, labor rights, environment, anticor- ruption, and fashion speci fi cs (designers, modeling, animals, transparency, etc.). The analysis includes many of the socioenvironmental impacts caused by the 60 M.Á. Gardetti
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industry today, ending with a comparative table that summarizes the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats. To discuss and re fl ect on the SAC Higg Index 2.0 and the UNGC Code of Conduct and Manual for the Fashion and Textile Industry, the former was divided into three levels, which are described in Appendices I and II. The analysis con- ducted in this paper, based on the list of the UNGC Code of Conduct principles (see Table 7 ), only deals with the fi rst two levels of the Higg Index 2.0. 3 The SAC Higg Index 2.0 and the UNGC Code of Conduct and Manual for the Fashion and Textile Industry 3.1 An Introduction In February 2011, large companies in the textile and fashion sectors presented a multistakeholder alliance in order to establish a set of sustainability indicators to be used throughout the clothing (or apparel) industry what Chouinard et al. ( 2011 ) called the value chain index. 1 The SAC was subsequently created, with the aim of transforming the industry into one that produces no unnecessary environmental harm and has a positive impact on the people and communities associated with its activities. According to Poldner ( 2013 ), SAC s members are convinced that they cannot face the social and environmental challenges in the textile supply chain on their own, 2 and that they should strike a balance between their own goals and the SAC s goals.
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