Vishnu maintains the universe shiva destroyer of the

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Vishnu – maintains the universe Shiva – destroyer of the universe The Deities of Classical Hinduism - Vishnu - Shiva - The Goddess (Parvati, Durga, Kali)
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The Epic or Classical Period: In the classical period of the Hindu religious tradition, there was more emphasis on devotional practice. The two great Indian epic poems, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana , tell personal stories of individual gods. One of the most popular texts in the Hindu tradition, the Bhagavad Gita , is one part of the Mahabharata Bhagavad Gita Ritual and Practical Dimension Yoga Pūjā Sacrifice Pilgrimage Austerity Tantra Experiential and emotional dimension Bhakt or devotion Dhyāna Sense of Empowerment Doctrinal and Philosophical Dimension Reincarnation Karma (action) Samsara Moksha o Nirvana in the Buddhist tradition o Kevala in the Jain tradition Brahman and Atman Ethical Dimensions Dharma – Four Stages of Life Studentship Householder Forest Dweller Sannyāsin Accumulating merit
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Chapter two: Hinduism II Monotheism – belief in one God Polytheism – belief in many gods *** Henotheism – “one-God-at-a-time-ism” Kathenotheism – coined by philologist Max Müller in reference to the Vedas, where each deity is treated as supreme in turn. Classical Hinduism: Post-Vedic literature called smrt (“that which is remembered”) Considered inspired human compositions Includes epics, ancient stories ( Puranas ), and codes of law and ethics The Ramayana: Sita: ideal wife Rama: paragon of human virtue Performed in South and Southeast Asian drama and dance traditions The Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita: One of the longest poems in world literature (approximately 100,000 Sanskrit verses) Narrative framework of conflict between cousins (Kauravas and five Pandava brothers, including Arjuna) Bhagavad Gita extracted from Mahabharata espouses devotion to a personal god (Krishna) in an important shift in Hindu theology The three ways to liberation: 1. Action ( karma yoga ): unselfish duty performed neither in fear of punishment nor in hope of reward 2. Knowledge ( jnana yoga ): transforming wisdom destroys one’s past karma 3. Devotion ( bhakt yoga ): surrender to the gods who forgive all sins The deities of Classical Hinduism: Vishnu comes down to Earth in various forms ( avataras ) to rid the world of evil and establish dharma or righteousness Shiva appears simultaneously in paradoxical roles: as creator and destroyer, as exuberant dancer, and as austere yogi The Goddess (Devi) is manifest as Parvati, the wife of Shiva; she is also Durga, the warrior, and Kali, the fierce mother. Sarasvati, the consort of the creator god Brahma is a Vedic goddess later becomes the goddess of learning Ganesha, elephant-headed son of Shiva and Parvati who removes obstacles is invoked to begin ventures
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Murugan, another son of Shiva also known as Skanda is popular in the Tamil region of South India
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