People with high need for cognition follow central route Low need for cognition

People with high need for cognition follow central

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People with high need for cognition follow central route - Low need for cognition influenced by peripheral cues such as attractiveness of endorsers - Those who are uncertainty oriented look for information, particularly in situations that are new and unpredictable - Certainty orientated individuals avoid such situations, when information is self-relevant - Uncertainty oriented people follow central route when issues personally relevant but those who are certainty oriented do not but rely on peripheral information when information is self-relevant and are more influenced by factors such as speaker attractiveness or expertise Social Influence The Mere Presence of Others - Presence of others energizes performance - Presence of coactors or a passive, silent audience enhanced performance - Because it increase our arousal and become more likely to perform whatever behavior happens to be our dominant response to specific situation - When task difficult and complex our dominant response is to make errors
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- Therefore, performing in front of audience or with cofactors impair performance - But when task simple or complex but well learned, dominant response is to perform task correctly - In these situations, performing in presence of others enhances performance - This is called social facilitation: increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in mere presence of others Social Norms: The Rules of the Game - Social norms : shared expectations about how people should think, feel and behave and are cement that binds social systems together - Formal laws and regulations as well as implicit and unspoken - Social role: set of norms that characterizes how people in given social position ought to behave - Role conflict occurs when norms accompanying different roles clash - Norms and roles influence behaviour so strongly that they compel a person to act uncharacteristically - Standford Prison Study led to overriding of values and dehumanizing treatment of prisoners Culture and Norm Formation - Social norms lose invisibility when violated and when we examine behaviour across cultures and historical periods - Autokinetic effect: even randomly created groups develop norms - Sherif’s dot experiment Conformity and Obedience - Conformity : adjustment of individual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs to group standard Why Do People Conform? - Informational social influence : follow opinions or behaviour of other people because believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is right - Normative social influence : conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while at same time avoiding their rejection - Experiment: conform to inaccurate judgments - Did it to avoid making waves and possible rejection: normative social influence - After several trials, other participants succumbed to informational social influence and began to doubt their eyesight and judgement Factors that Affect Conformity - Group size o Conformity increase as group size increases from one to four confederates but further increases in size did not increase conformity
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  • Spring '09
  • ATKINSON
  • Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Sternberg, Theory of multiple intelligences, cognitive abilities

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