People with high need for cognition follow central route-Low need for cognition influenced by peripheral cues such as attractiveness of endorsers-Those who are uncertainty oriented look for information, particularly in situations that are new and unpredictable-Certainty orientated individuals avoid such situations, when information is self-relevant-Uncertainty oriented people follow central route when issues personally relevant but those who are certainty oriented do not but rely on peripheral information when information is self-relevant and are more influenced by factors such as speaker attractiveness or expertiseSocial InfluenceThe Mere Presence of Others-Presence of others energizes performance-Presence of coactors or a passive, silent audience enhanced performance-Because it increase our arousal and become more likely to perform whatever behavior happens to be our dominant response to specific situation-When task difficult and complex our dominant response is to make errors
-Therefore, performing in front of audience or with cofactors impair performance-But when task simple or complex but well learned, dominant response is to perform task correctly-In these situations, performing in presence of others enhances performance-This is called social facilitation:increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in mere presence of othersSocial Norms: The Rules of the Game-Social norms: shared expectations about how people should think, feel and behave and are cement that binds social systems together-Formal laws and regulations as well as implicit and unspoken-Social role:set of norms that characterizes how people in given social position ought to behave-Role conflict occurs when norms accompanying different roles clash-Norms and roles influence behaviour so strongly that they compel a person to act uncharacteristically-Standford Prison Study led to overriding of values and dehumanizing treatment of prisonersCulture and Norm Formation-Social norms lose invisibility when violated and when we examine behaviour across cultures and historical periods-Autokinetic effect:even randomly created groups develop norms-Sherif’s dot experiment Conformity and Obedience-Conformity: adjustment of individual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs to group standardWhy Do People Conform?-Informational social influence: follow opinions or behaviour of other people because believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is right-Normative social influence: conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while at same time avoiding their rejection-Experiment: conform to inaccurate judgments-Did it to avoid making waves and possible rejection: normative social influence-After several trials, other participants succumbed to informational social influence and began to doubt their eyesight and judgementFactors that Affect Conformity-Group sizeoConformity increase as group size increases from one to four confederates but further increases in size did not increase conformity
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 75 pages?
Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Sternberg, Theory of multiple intelligences, cognitive abilities