The weak and the unintelligent were conquered and

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the meek, but the most Machiavellian among the human race. The weak and the unintelligent were conquered and these “civilized nations are everywhere supplanting barbarous nations” (243). Darwin seems to be strongly encouraging a view of the weak, “uncivilized”, or undesirables as individuals to be eliminated by natural selection to make way for more civilized and desirable nations. Darwin also incudes the idea that women are “children” and less evolved than men; this idea attests to the influence of Victorian era ideals on his writings. Darwin’s scientific view of illness seeps into Dostoevsky’s writings; Dostoevsky seems to acknowledge Darwin’s early concept of hereditary. For example, Ivan, Alyosha, and Smerdyakov have a predisposition to nervous disorders and spasms. However, Dostoevsky also acknowledges the importance of emotional healing, which is absent in Darwin’s writings; Alyosha is able to heal, while Ivan suffers from a nervous breakdown because he refuses to face the emotional aspects of his illness. o Alyosha commits matricide when he actively throws himself on the ground. His mother would have passively fallen on the ground, but Alyosha actively flings himself, possibly in a demonstration of control, which his mother lacked. This acknowledgement of the mother allows Alyosha to commit matricide, a metaphorical removal of the mother. Ivan
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also undergoes a very different form of matricide in his nervous matricide. Instead of suicide, Ivan’s nervous break down in itself is an acknowledgement of the mother because his mother was prone to the very same fits of illness. “The luxuriant autumn flowers in the flowerbeds near the house had fallen asleep until morning. The silence of the earth seemed to merge with the silence of the heavens, the mystery of the earth seemed to merge with the silence of the heavens, the mystery of the earth touched the mystery of the stars…Alyosha stood gazing and suddenly, as if he had been cut down, threw himself to the Earth” (362) ‘As is he had been cut down’ suggests an involuntary illness, which Alyosha had been subject to before. However, Alyosha turns this fall into a religious, willful embracing act of love and he actively “threw himself down” Alyosha takes control over his past, and unlike his mother, he is able to control his illness and is able to come of age, so to speak. He releases himself from his image of his mother by taking active control over his illness, and he revisits Father Zosima’s coffin and is able to accept that his idol was only human. This acceptance does not take away from his love for Zosima, it only allows him to commit a metaphorical parricide of the god-like image of his idol, Zosima, and see him as human. Each of the brother’s Karamazov must undergo a transformative experience to commit matricide and parricide before they can connect with their family and others in the future. Each brother must overcome a reaction formation against the mother, father, or both. The inability to come to terms with the inner inheritance of
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