Course Hero Logo

Molecules migration into tissues is minimal very high

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 8 - 11 out of 20 pages.

molecules, migration into tissues is minimal: very high numbers ofneutrophils in blood, can’t migrate to site of infection, infection goesunchecked high levels of neutrophils in the bloodopatient’s neutrophils have defects in expressing integrins orselectins resulting in little to no tissue penetration; patients dieyoung from inability to fight infectionInnate Immunity – Complementcomplement- series of 20 different proteins that circulate in serum,circulate inactive forms until triggered by a pathogen, then enzymecascade in which the proteins become activated and cleaves anotherinactive enzymes= zymogens8
IMMUNOLOGY – EXAM 1 – SCHWARTZ – SPRING 2018the heart of it is on recognizing bacterial pathogensVIDEO:antibody molecules bind to the bacterial antigen cause the recruitmentof the C1 complex in this complex there are regions that bind to theantibody then others that will cause a cascadeorecruitment of C1 complex (regions that bind to antibodies andpart that starts cascade)oC4b binds to pathogen surface, C2 binds to C4b, then C2b iscleaved, have C4bC2a, then have C3 convertase (enzymaticcomplex that cleaves C3 which is the gateway to the rest of thecascade), C3 convertase bound to bacterial surface then formsC3a and C3b, C3b stays bound to bacterial surface and formsand opsonite, C3a small subunit anaphalotoxin which isimportant for recruitment (like chemokines)othis subunit can cleave many C3 convertases, starts theformationC5 is the initiating attack of the membrane killingcomponent, C5 binds to bacterial surface and a bunch of C9 formthe pore, C6 and C7 allows C5 to bind to them along with C8 lotsof C9 comes and the C9 pore formed causes loss of integrity andultimately death of membraneThe Complement Systema group of zymogens (inactivated enzymes) found in serum, involvedin three major functionsocontrol of inflammation (recruitment of phagocytes)increased permeability of vessels and increased number ofcells into the areathe anaphylatoxins (mediate recruitment of phagocytes)lead to recruitment and allow this to happen the two thatare significant to us are C3a and C5aoenhanced pathogen uptake and clearance (opsonization)opsonization – enhanced efficiency of bacterial uptake, itmakes it more efficientmajor one = C3bolytic attack of cell membranes (killing bacteria)no cells are required for this the complement is able to dothis alone, the complement system recognizes that andcan kill through complement aloneinvolved in this order: C5b, C6, C7, C8, and lots of C9lytic membrane attack complex (MAC) = C5-C9, 6-8judges where the pore is; C9 assembles into the poreif you were missing C3a since it is a cascade, you would have aproblem in all threea person missing C7 would have a problem with lytic attackNeisseria infection happens a lot in people who cannot do lytic MAC,while some bacteria has become more resistant to lytic attack9
IMMUNOLOGY – EXAM 1 – SCHWARTZ – SPRING 2018complement activation is the start of C3

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 20 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
The Maids, cells, NK Cells

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture