Something embarrassing that happened allows us to

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Something embarrassing that happened Allows us to imagine future events (memory can be retrospective/past and prospective/future) Explicit vs. Implicit Memory - Explicit: deliberate use of memory with a conscious awareness of remembering - Implicit: automatic use of memory without conscious awareness; corresponds to non- declarative memory Measuring Explicit Memory
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- Recall: retrieving information from memory without any cues - Recognition: selecting previously learned information form an array of options; easier Serial-Position Effect in Recall - Primacy Effect: superior recall of early words - Recency Effect: superior recall of most recent words - Theory: earliest information has been rehearsed and entered LTM; latest information is still in STM; middle items dropped out of STM before they could be stored, because it was full Measuring Implicit Memory - Priming Tasks: expose participants to some information, then see if it affects their performance on a later task - When a word is displayed, you say the first word that comes to mind - Relearning Method: How quickly can you learn something the second time around; also called the ‘savings method’ Common Experimental Tasks - Word-completion task Read words with specific letters in them Ex. Starting with tri (tripartite, triplets, triage, trichinosis) Later given the letters tri and asked to complete the word More likely to give words you’d read before, even if you’ve forgotten reading them - Picture-fragment task See fragments of pictures, learn about what they are Later given fragments and asked to identify Even many years later, more likely to correctly identify ones seen before How is the vast amount of information stored in long-term memory organized? - Organization by Semantic Categories Words (and the concepts they represent) with related meanings are believed to be linked together in clusters Ex furniture: couch, chair, table Ex table: coffee table, dining table, bedside table - Evidence: Recall of studied words tends to occur in within-category clusters (even when words are studied in random order) Selective deficits after brain damage—inability to recall objects in a particular category How are Memories Stored in the Brain? - Changes in Neurons and Synapses Short-term: involves temporary changes within neurons that alter their ability to release neurotransmitters
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Ex. Simple learning in Aplysia; gill withdrawal reflex: when siphon touched, gill reflexively withdraws; over time, Aplysia stops responding to stimulation (learning occurs) Habituation: caused by decrease in NT release at the synapses between sensory and motor cells Long-term Memory : involves lasting structural changes in the brain; neurons- growth of dendrites and spines; synapses-more receptor sites, new synapses formed; causes more calcium to enter cells, leading to changes Long-term Potentiation - Structural changes caused by simultaneous firing of cells, which strengthens their connections -
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