7.2. The Proposed Framework The proposed framework consists of three broad phases ranging from the occurrence of the contaminating incident through the investigative phase, remediation phase, to the valuation phase. The existence of a wetland is taken for granted in the Niger Delta, thus the first phase includes the reporting/ occurrence of a contaminating incident, the initial observation stage, the preliminary survey stage, and possibly provision of relief materials to affected persons; the second stage involves the topographical survey to determine extent and boundary of the site, detailed site investigations of the contaminated site to detect extent and impact of the incident through a Scientific Study or Environmental Impact Analysis, the design of a remediation plan and the actual remediation of the site; and the third stage which entails the appraisal/valuation process which spans from the definition of the valuation problem, data collection, data analysis, selection of valuation methods and development of a composite valuation method suitable to the case to the determination of the value of the wetland in its non-contaminated and subsequently contaminated state.
A Framework for Determining the Compensable Value of Damages due to Contamination on Wetlands Page | 272 POLLUTION CONTAMINATION WET LANDS Preliminary Survey Relief General Data Design Remedia- Tion Plan Remediatio- n Cost Data Collection & Property Description Site Specific Data Detailed Investigation Define Problem EIA/Scientific Study Topographical Survey Determine Land Composition Analyse Data Impaired Value Establish Cost, Use & Risk Effects Select Valuation Method Diminution In Value PHASE 3: VALUATION PHASE 2: INVESTIGATIVE PHASE PHASE 1: OCCURRENCE OF EVENT M.P.APP. M. C. APP. R. C. APP. P. F. APP. BEN. TRANSFER COST APPROACH MAKT. APPROACH INCOME- APPROACH Damage Due to Pollution Property Based Valuation Method Wetland Based Valuation Methods Figure 7.1: Proposed Framework before Validation
A Framework for Determining the Compensable Value of Damages due to Contamination on Wetlands Page | 273 Figure 7.2: Proposed Framework for Determining Compensable Value Uncontaminated Wetland Uncontaminated Wetland Preliminary Investigation Preliminary Investigation Provide Relief Provide Relief Detailed Investigation Detailed Investigation Impact Studies Impact Studies Land Survey Land Survey Data Size Data Size Design Remediation Plan Design Remediation Plan Clean/ Remediate Clean/ Remediate Define Problem; Determine Composition Define Problem; Determine Composition Data Collection General Data Property Data Site-specific Data Data Collection General Data Property Data Site-specific Data Analyse Data Analyse Data Select Valuation Method Select Valuation Method Sales Comparison Income Approach Cost Approach Sales Comparison Income Approach Cost Approach Pollution Reported NO YES OCCURRENCE OF INCIDENT I VALUATION PHASE IV INVESTIGATIVE PHASE II PROBLEM DEFINITION AND REMEDIATION PHASE III WETLAND BASED METHODS Market Prices
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