To conduct a phylogenetic analysis an outgroup is

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To conduct a phylogenetic analysis an outgroup is needed in order to A decide from EE BIOL LS7A at University of California, Los Angeles

66 .   To conduct a phylogenetic analysis , an outgroup is needed in order to :
A ) decide which characters are analogous and which are homologous .
B ) determine which character states are ancestral and which are derived .
C ) determine which characteristics to include in our analysis .
D ) decide which molecular data to use .
E ) All of these choices are correct .
Answer:  E )   All of these choices are correct .
67 .   The specific types of homologies used to develop phylogenies are shared derived characters or :
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68 .   Phylogenetic reconstruction based on shared derived characters is called :
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69 .   Traits that are similar in two species as a result of common ancestry are referred to as :
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70 .   Seals and penguins both have streamlined body forms that allow them to move through water efficiently . This similarity in body shape is MOST likely the result of :
A ) convergent evolution .
B ) shared ancestry .
C ) homology .
D ) phylogeny
E ) cladistics
Answer:  b.   convergent evolution .
71 .   In order to be useful for constructing a phylogeny , a character must :
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72 .   Only homologous characters are useful in constructing phylogenetic trees .
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73 .   Traits that are shared by more than one member of a group because of common ancestry are known as :
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74 .   When several possible phylogenetic trees can be produced from a data set , the MOST parsimonious tree is the one that shows the :
A ) smallest number of evolutionary changes .
B ) largest number of nodes .
C ) largest number of analogous characteristics .
D ) smallest number of synapomorphies .
E ) smallest number of branches .
Answer:  A )   smallest number of evolutionary changes .
75 .   Compared with more distantly related taxa , the DNA sequences of two closely related taxa are expected to show :
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76 .   Phylogenetic trees can be used to infer character states of extinct organisms .
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77 .   Both analogies and homologies are always used to create phylogenetic trees . In fact , analogies often provide more information regarding the evolutionary relationships between different species than do homologies .
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78 .   Imagine that a researcher has created two possible phylogenetic trees for a group of organisms  one that hypothesizes that five character changes occurred in a given group , and one that predicts only two character changes occurred in the same group . If the researcher wants to choose a phylogenetic tree based on parsimony , she will pick the phylogenetic tree with two character changes as her working hypothesis .
A ) True
B ) False
Answer:  A )   True
79 .   Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding phylogenetic trees ?
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66.To conduct a phylogenetic analysis, an outgroup is needed in order to: A) decide which characters are analogous and which are homologous. B) determine which character states are ancestral and which are derived. C) determine which characteristics to include in our analysis. D) decide which molecular data to use. E) All of these choices are correct.
67.The specific types of homologies used to develop phylogenies are shared derived characters or:
68.Phylogenetic reconstruction based on shared derived characters is called:
69.Traits that are similar in two species as a result of common ancestry are referred to as:
70.Seals and penguins both have streamlined body forms that allow them to move through water efficiently. This similarity in body shape is MOST likely the result of: A) convergent evolution. B) shared ancestry. C) homology. D) phylogeny E) cladistics
Page 32 71.In order to be useful for constructing a phylogeny, a character must:
72.Only homologous characters are useful in constructing phylogenetic trees.
73.Traits that are shared by more than one member of a group because of common ancestry are known as:
74.When several possible phylogenetic trees can be produced from a data set, the MOST parsimonious tree is the one that shows the: A) smallest number of evolutionary changes. B) largest number of nodes. C) largest number of analogous characteristics. D) smallest number of synapomorphies. E) smallest number of branches.
75.Compared with more distantly related taxa, the DNA sequences of two closely related taxa are expected to show:
Page 33

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