ie walking swimming dance aerobics jogging bicycling and moving arms and legs

Ie walking swimming dance aerobics jogging bicycling

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i.e. walking, swimming, dance aerobics, jogging, bicycling, and moving arms and legs with light resistance. Isotonic exercises enhance circulatory and respiratory functioning, increase muscle mass, ton and strength, promote osteoblastic activity (activity by bone-forming cells), thus combating osteoporosis. Isometric exercises involve tightening or tensing muscles without moving body parts (isometric contraction) i.e. quadriceps set exercises and contraction of the gluteal muscles. Ideal for patient who do not tolerate increased activity. A patient who is immobilized in bed can perform isometric exercises. The benefit are increased muscle mass, tone, and strength, thus decreasing the potential for muscle wasting, increased circulation to the involved body and increased osteoblastic activity. Resistive isometric exercises are those in which an individual contracts the muscle while pushing against a stationary object or resisting the movement of an object. A gradual increase in the amount of resistance and length of time that the muscle contraction is held increases muscle strength and endurance. i.e. push-ups and hip lifting, in which a patient in a sitting position pushes with the hands against a surface such as a chair seat and raises the hips. In some long-term care
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facilities footboards are placed on the end of beds – patients push against them to move up in bed. Resistive isometric exercises help promote muscle strength and provide sufficient stress against bone to promote osteoblastic activity. Body alignment Alignment, balance, or posture refer to the positioning of joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles while standing, sitting, or lying. Center of gravity Gravity Range of motion Definition Extent of movement of a joint Flexion (flex) How far a joint can be bent Extension (point) How far a joint can be stretched Types of ROM: Active Unassisted – patient can do it themselves Assistive Help the patient do some because they may be weak and can’t do it all, but they can do some on their own Passive Do all of the ROM – patient cannot move at all on their own The purpose of ROM is to: Improve or maintain joint function Prevent contractures Improve muscle tone and strength Increase patient comfort Terms: Flexion Extension Hyperextension Abduction Adduction Rotation Circumduction Movement of a joint from maximum extension to maximum flexion, as measured in degrees of a circle Assess ROM for joint stiffness, swelling, pain, limited movement, and unequal movement Assess mobility – ROM, gait, exercise More factors Affecting Mobility Diseases Nutrition Lifestyle Stress Environmental factors Assessment Complete assessment of body alignment and posture with the patient standing, sitting, or lying down.
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