i.e. walking, swimming, dance aerobics, jogging, bicycling, and moving arms and legs with light resistance.Isotonic exercises enhance circulatory and respiratory functioning, increase muscle mass, ton and strength, promote osteoblastic activity (activity by bone-forming cells), thus combating osteoporosis.Isometric exercisesinvolve tightening or tensing muscles without moving body parts (isometric contraction)i.e. quadriceps set exercises and contraction of the gluteal muscles.Ideal for patient who do not tolerate increased activity. A patient who is immobilized in bed can perform isometric exercises.The benefit are increased muscle mass, tone, and strength, thus decreasing the potential for muscle wasting, increased circulation to the involved body and increased osteoblasticactivity.Resistive isometricexercises are those in which an individual contracts the muscle while pushing against a stationary object or resisting the movement of an object.A gradual increase in the amount of resistance and length of time that the muscle contraction is held increases muscle strength and endurance.i.e. push-ups and hip lifting, in which a patient in a sitting position pushes with the handsagainst a surface such as a chair seat and raises the hips. In some long-term care
facilities footboards are placed on the end of beds – patients push against them to move up in bed.Resistive isometric exercises help promote muscle strength and provide sufficient stress against bone to promote osteoblastic activity. Body alignmentAlignment, balance, or posture refer to the positioning of joints, tendons, ligaments, and muscles while standing, sitting, or lying.Center of gravityGravity Range of motionDefinitionExtent of movement of a jointFlexion (flex)How far a joint can be bentExtension (point)How far a joint can be stretchedTypes of ROM:ActiveUnassisted – patient can do it themselvesAssistiveHelp the patient do some because they may be weak and can’t do it all, but they can do some on their ownPassiveDo all of the ROM – patient cannot move at all on their ownThe purpose of ROM is to:Improve or maintain joint functionPrevent contracturesImprove muscle tone and strengthIncrease patient comfortTerms:FlexionExtensionHyperextensionAbductionAdductionRotationCircumductionMovement of a joint from maximum extension to maximum flexion, as measured in degrees ofa circle•Assess ROM for joint stiffness, swelling, pain, limited movement, and unequal movementAssess mobility – ROM, gait, exerciseMore factors Affecting MobilityDiseasesNutritionLifestyleStressEnvironmental factorsAssessmentComplete assessment of body alignment and posture with the patient standing, sitting, or lying down.