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invocations also inaugurate a contestation over the meaning of Chicana womanhood, especially when Adelita is appropriated for a women’s organization that has started as a response to sexism. Although images of them appeared in movement media, their contingent was virtually erased from the documentary film Chicano Moratorium directed by Victor Millan. 39. She identifies as role models activist Anna Mae Aquash and the Lakota women who first voiced the need to take a stand at Wounded Knee. When American Indian women were confronted by a white feminist, she reports, they told the white feminist that they could not focus on women’s liberation until their men “get their balls back.” This should not be understood as the lack of feminist consciousness, but as a question of strategy and priority that is, nonetheless, caught u p with a binary construction of American Indian manhood and womanhood. Crow Dog discusses American Indian women’s issues such as the forced sterilization of American Indian women, but overall the autobiography grapples with the use of traditionalism as a form of resistance. Crow Dog 52
Chicana Brown Berets relates, for example, the unequal distribution of household labor that eventually makes her sick with depression and what appears to be an eating disorder (1990, 131, 137-38, 186-98). 40. See A Taste of Power: A Black Woman’s Story (Brown 1993, 190-201), for a description of how “the clique” developed after Brown attended a meeting in Oakland where she observed Black Panther women preparing meals and cleaning up after the male Panthers. Eventually four of the women, including Brown, shared a n apartment and also looked after each other’s children. The “clique” was broken up when two women were “assigned to the Northern chapter” and Brown was sent to New Haven to organize around the trial of Ericka and John Huggins. For another take on feminism and the Black Panthers, see “Black Panther Sisters Talk about Women’s Liberation,” reprinted in Moreno 1973, 6 1-66. Commentary on Brown and other women is also provided in Knapper 41. Indeed, being a Brown Beret was a family affair. Several participants were actually brother-sister or sister-sister pairs, which at times brought less-helpful aspects of family relationships into the organization. In other instances, relationships were solidified by the marriage of, for example, a brother to a woman friend. 42. For a critique of “sisterhood” in an Anglo American context, see Lugones in collaboration with Pat Alake Rosezelle (1995). Lugones is critical of the claim to egalitarianism implied by sisterhood in an Anglo American context because it is not fulfilled in relation to women of color. She claims that “hermana” is only used in a Latina context to signify deep trust and sympathy. For this reason, the use of “familia de hermanas” hints at the cultu- ral conception of women’s bonding that enables one to use the term “hermana.” See also hooks 1984 for a view that maintains the potential power of “sisterhood” as