It ensures that rights established under deeds wills

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It ensures that rights established under deeds, wills, contracts, judicial decision and similar instruments in one state will be honored by other states. Promotes mutual friendship among people of various states and protects their legal right as they move about from state to state. Three branches of government – guards against the possibility that the national government might use its power arbitrarily. Uses a system of Checks and Balances – allows each branch to limit the actions of the other two branches, thus preventing any one branch from exercising too much power. 1. Legislative Branch – makes laws 2. Executive Branch – enforces laws 3. Judicial Branch – interprets laws The Commerce Clause : permits congress to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states. Provides the basis for the national governments extensive regulation of state and even local affairs. Prevents states from establishing laws and regulations that would interfere with trade and commerce among the states. Commerce is regulated between (interstate commerce) and within (intrastate commerce) the states. Intrastate commerce can only be regulated as long as the commerce substantially affected commerce involving more than one state. Expanded national powers - The breadth of the commerce clause permits the national government to legislate in areas in which congress has not explicitly been granted powers. Ex: can prohibit racial discrimination in public buildings but cannot ban possession of guns within 1000ft of a school. Marijuana – state laws that allow the use of medical marijuana do not insulate the users from federal prosecution under the federal controlled substances act; congress can prohibit intrastate possession Dormant Commerce Clause – negative aspect of the commerce clause; that the states do not have the authority to regulate interstate commerce. Comes into play when state regulations affect interstate commerce. The Supremacy Clause : the constitution, laws and treaties of the United States are the supreme law of the land. When there is a direct conflict between a federal law and a state law, the state law is rendered invalid. Preemption – when congress chooses to act exclusively in an area in which the federal government and the states have concurrent powers. A valid federal statue or regulation will take precedence over a conflicting state or local law or regulation on the same general subject. The taxing powers : congress has the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises. Requires uniformity in taxation among the states – congress may not tax some states while exempting others. Congress cannot regulate indirectly though taxation in an area over which it has no authority; tax would be invalid.

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