work not as evil temptations o Gods elect were people who had successful and

Work not as evil temptations o gods elect were people

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work, not as evil temptations o God’s elect were people who had successful and righteous businesses and had “this-worldly asceticism” (did not overindulge and were not hedonists or lazy) o So wealth accumulation and profitableness was appreciated and encourage ! Leading to savings, investment and surplus ! Ascetic temperament and bureaucratic form of social organization later developed The Calling: the idea that each individual has a calling or “life task” based in a religious quest for salvation through fulfilling moral obligations and vocational duties >>>ultimately shows the moral and theological motivations behind the norms of rational behavior, technological advancement and the birth of capitalism o also led to status awareness Over time, the religious aspect and moral anchors were lost; “Fueled the creation of a secular world in which material goods have gained an increasing and inexorable power over the lives of men” >> “iron cage” that individual cannot escape o However habits like double-entry bookkeeping remained like an anchorage to Protestant religion and practices.. Time = money mentality (time became a way to measure life and your actions); when you lose money, you lose all the deals you could have made with it ( Ben Franklin ) o Credit = money; credit is profitable; honesty = credit. New ethics? Social Structure and Anomie by Robert K. Merton “Structural restraints on the ability to obtain socially valued goods, such as wealth, shape the possible range of individual responses” Cultural Goals and Institutional Norms
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5 Societies are governed by institutions and folkways etc which determine integration and cultural values Anomie occurs when goals and means are not compatible which can lead to demoralization in order to achieve goals (Differs from Durkheim’s meaning) Modes of Individual Adaptation ( + acceptance | -- rejection | +/- rejection or replacement of current values) Mode Of Adaptation Cultural Goals Institutionalized Means Conformity + + Innovation + -- Ritualism -- + Retreatism -- -- Rebellion +/- +/- Conformity : members behave in a way that represents cultural patterns even if changing o Many values shared by individuals o Most common and widely diffused Innovation: individual is determined to be successful and fulfill goals of wealth and power which is the cultural goal, but the individual doesn’t internalize the norms for attainment o can means either still be morally correct or outside the mores Ritualism: individual follows their own personal aspirations rather than the cultural goals in a way that is still socially accepted o Mentality: “I’m satisfied with what I’ve got.” “Don’t aim high and you won’t be disappointed.” ! Allows an escape from the frustrations that cultural goals can bring and allows holding onto safe routines and norms Retreatism: least common mode in which the individual is “ in the society but not of it” o Individual gives up on society; defeated, quiet and accepting of situation, resignation o A result of not being productive; socially neglected; minimal frustration though
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