Sympathetic division: (fight or flight) part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal o Parasympathetic division: part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day function of the organs and glands The Endocrine Glands Endocrine glands: glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream o Hormones: chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands Pituitary gland: gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland) Pineal gland: endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin Thyroid gland: endocrine gland found in the neck that regulates metabolism o Thyroxin Pancreas: endocrine glad that controls the levels of sugar in the blood Gonads: the sex glands; secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction o Ovaries: the female gonads o Testes: the male gonads Adrenal glands: endocrine glands located on top of each kidney o Secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake o Provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence Looking Inside the Living Brain Clinical Studies o Deep lesioning: insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire o Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB): milder electrical current that causes neurons to react as if they had received a message o Human brain damage Mapping Structure Computed tomography (CT): brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain Mapping Function o Electroencephalogram (EEG): records electric activity of the brain below specific areas of the skull o Position emission tomography (PET): radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of brain activity of the brain; lighter colors indicate more activity o Functional MRI (fMRI): a computer makes a sort of "movie" of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods The Hindbrain Medulla: first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain o Responsible for life-sustaining function such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate
Hippocampus: plays a role in our learning, memory, and ability to compare sensory information to expectations o Responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects Pituitary gland: regulates other endocrine glands Hypothalamus: part of the forebrain that regulates the amount of fear, thirst, sexual drive, and aggression we feel.
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- Spring '17
- John Jackson
- Psychology, endocrine glands