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4 under proper conditions the average human being

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4. Under proper conditions, the average human being learns not only to accept but to seekresponsibility.5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity inthe solution of organizational problems is widely distributed throughout the population.6. Under conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potential of the average humanbeing is only partially tapped.ATheory Z managerbelieves that workers seek opportunities to participate in managementand are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing. The specific philosophicalassumptions of a Theory Z leader are:1. People are motivated by a strong sense of commitment to be part of a greater whole—theorganization in which they work.
2. Employees seek out responsibility and look for opportunities to advance in an organization.Through teamwork and commitment to common goals, employees derive self-satisfaction andcontribute to organizational success.3. Employees who learn different aspects of the business will be in a better position tocontribute to the broader goals of the organization.4. By making commitments to employees’ security through lifetime or long-term employment,the organization will engender in employees strong bonds of loyalty, making the organizationmore productive and successful.Theory X has generally fallen out of fashion and managers and leaders are increasingly aware ofnonpecuniary (nonfinancial) incentives and rewards. Theories Y and Z are somewhatcomplementary in that each assumes some degree of intrinsic motivation on the part ofemployees.Leadership Behaviors and StylesLeader behaviors can be translated into three commonly recognized styles: (1) authoritarian, (2)paternalistic, and (3) participative.Authoritarian leadershipis the use of work centeredbehavior that is designed to ensure task accomplishment.Paternalistic leadershipuses work-centered behavior coupled with a protective employee-centered concern. This leadership style can be best summarized by the statement, “Work hardand the company will take care of you.” Paternalistic leaders expect everyone to work hard; inreturn, the employees are guaranteed employment and given security benefits such as medicaland retirement programs. Usually, this leadership behavior satisfies some employee needs, andin turn subordinates tend to exhibit loyalty and compliance.Participative leadershipis the use of both work-centered and people-centered approaches.Participative leaders typically encourage their people to play an active role in assuming controlof their work, and authority usually is highly decentralized. The way in which leaders motivateemployees could be through consulting with employees, encouraging joint decisions, ordelegating responsibilities. Regardless of the method, employees tend to be more creative andinnovative when driven by leaders exhibiting this behavior.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Winchester

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